It is estimated that more than half i.e. approximately 60% of world’s population will be living in urban areas by the year 2030. It is also estimated that more than 150000 people migrate to towns on daily basis…
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According to statistics, it is estimated that more than half i.e. approximately 60% of world’s population will be living in urban areas by the year 2030 (Knox, 2005). It is also estimated that more than 150000 people migrate to towns on daily basis, with less developed countries showing a higher trend than that of developed countries. For an urban area to be categorized as such, there are various indicators which must be present. These are for example the population density, percentage of under dependence on agriculture, public utilities among others but which may vary according to the state or country in question (Martine, 2008). This paper is a critical evaluation of the causes and negative effects of urbanization in developing countries. Urbanization in Developing Countries Urbanization as stated herein is the increased settlement of people in towns mostly after they relocate from rural areas. It is a phenomenon which has continued to attract attention especially since it is considered a recipe for numerous negativities. There are various reasons why the rate of urbanization has been increasing in developing countries. To begin with, it has been found out that lack of job opportunities in the rural areas is a major contributing factor (Lynch, 2005). Most of the people living in rural areas depend highly on rain fed Agriculture as their lifeline. Apparently, the world has continued to experience harsh climatic conditions due to global warming, which has tampered with rainfall patterns such that areas that used to receive high amounts of rainfall are now suffering from lack of it and when it rains, it creates havoc in terms of flooding. This implies that people can no longer depend on farming alone to sustain their day to day financial requirements (Lynch, 2005). In addition, rural areas in developing countries are experiencing overpopulation as a result of low infant mortality rate coupled with high birth rate, which means that there is a lot of competition on the already available land (Bhatia, 2000). For example, a family that owns a land of 10 acres but comprising of 10 heirs means that each heir would inherit 1 acre of land which would then be subdivided among their offspring. In the end, each one of the residents after a generation is left with minimal space to conduct any viable development. As a result of these limitations, most of rural dwellers opt to migrate to towns where they end up acquiring cheap accommodation in substandard environments such as ghettos and shanties. It may also be necessary to observe that industrialization leads to mechanization especially in Agriculture and in this case, it means that the demand of manual laborers becomes low thereby creating the problem of unemployment, which in itself is a recipe for rural urban migration (Bhatia, 2000). Majority of developing countries also are experiencing a rapid growth of new industries, which are creating more demand for labor (Martine, 2008). This is a development which is attracting young men and women to migrate from rural areas especially due to the fact that investors usually situate their premises in urban areas where there are high numbers of people who can provide ready market for the processed goods. The high demand for manufactured goods is due to the fact that urban dwellers do not participate in food production and therefore depend solely on their salaries and wages to budget for their daily needs. On the contrary, rural dwellers depend on their small chunks of land for food not forgetting the fact that the limitation of resources lowers their purchasing power thereby discouraging investors from establishing industries in those areas. It is also important to note that most of the governments in developing nations have failed to decentralize national resources such that rural areas
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“What Can Cause Urbanisation in a Developing Country Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/macro-microeconomics/1429025-what-can-cause-urbanisation-in-a-developing.
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