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East asian studies china - Essay Example

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Author’s Name [Author’s Name] [Class] East Asian Studies China 7. John Gittings (The Changing Face of China) (p.7) observes that China has yet to come to terms with its Mao era history. What lessons does Philip Pan’s essay on the Chongqing ‘cemetery’ teach about the Cultural Revolution (CR)?…
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Download file to see previous pages Still, a profound historian and journalist John Gittings suggests the idea that the role and impact of Cultural Revolution on modern China’s economy is underestimated or even neglected. Gittings cites the World Bank report on China: during the period between 1957 and 1977, GDP growth was directly proportional to population growth, the literacy level was also significantly increased, the mortality rate decreased. Moreover, there were some improvements performed in the sphere of healthcare. The industrial production of the country grew at almost 11 per cent. Thus, the goal of Cultural Revolution was to combat the “sedition”, which occurred in artistic and intellectual environment. And, according to Mao, this “sedition” could prevent him from implementation of the reforms, aimed at country’s economy recovery. But Philip Pan’s essay focuses on the negative consequences of Cultural Revolution. Chongqing cemetery is a memorial to the victims of political repressions, held during the Cultural Revolution. The cemetery contains 131 tombstones, under which a total of 537 bodies lie buried. Now China is trying to forget about the events of Cultural Revolution. Pan is convinced that people should look back and remember about the price paid for dictator’s ambitions. ...
1. What do the events of the Boxer Rebellion tell us about the character of popular nationalism and the sense of national identity prevalent among ordinary Chinese around the beginning of the 20th Century? There is no need to prove that any intervention of foreign powers is always fraught with resistance of local population. So, the similar events took place in China, 1899-1901, when the people of this country rose to fight for freedom. Patriotic Chinese sought to disseminate the ideas, put forward by Sun Yat-sen in 1894, on "nationalism", "democracy" and "national prosperity". The concept of "nationalism" was reduced to the struggle of the Chinese people for their own state without the Manchus, the Japanese and Europeans. Ordinary Chinese were particularly insulted with European contempt to their customs and the desire to impose Christian faith by force. In 1899, a popular uprising, known as the “Yihetuan rebellion” or “Boxer Rebellion”, broke in China. The reason for the rebellion was a conflict in one of the Shandong villages, where a dispute over local temple ownership between the Catholic mission and the local population took place. The court ruled in favor of the Catholic Church, then people rebelled under the Yihetuan leadership (Yi He Tuan – nationalist organization “Fist in the name of justice and harmony”). Even the name of the uprising had the nationalist orientation. This uprising is better known under the name of "Boxer Rebellion", as Chinese, when trying to achieve their own goal of a national state, used close combat skills, magic ceremonies and amulets, tried to develop supernatural powers and to achieve invulnerability in battle with their well-armed enemies. 2. What were the basic characteristics of the ‘tributary ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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