Download file to see previous pages...
When delegates in nine of the then thirteen states ratified the document, it marked the creation of a union of sovereign states, and a federal government to administer that union. It took effect on March 4, 1789, replacing the weaker, non-centralized union that existed under the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution of the United States is one of the oldest constitutions still in use (the oldest being that of the Republic of San Marino, which dates backs to 1600), and the oldest federal constitution currently in use.
In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce. They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia to discuss improvements to the federal government. After debate, the Confederation Congress endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787. Twelve states, Rhode Island being the only exception, accepted this invitation and sent delegates to convene in May 1787. The resolution calling the Convention specified its purpose was to propose amendments to the Articles, but the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution. The Philadelphia Convention voted to keep deliberations secret and decided to draft a new fundamental government design which eventually stipulated that only 9 of the 13 states would have to ratify for the new government to go into effect (for the participating states). Congress, noting dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation government, unanimously agreed to submit the proposal to the states despite what some perceived as the exceeded terms of reference. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was completed in Philadelphia, followed by a speech given by Benjamin Franklin. In it he talked about how he wasn't completely satisfied with it but that perfection would never fully be achieved. He accepted the document as it was and he wanted all those against the ratification of it to do the same. After fierce fights over ratification in many of the states, New Hampshire became that ninth state on June 21, 1788. Once the Congress of the Confederation received word of New Hampshire's ratification, it set a timetable for the start of operations under the Constitution, and, on March 4, 1789, the government under the Constitution began operations.
Changes since 1787
The Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Those amendments were adopted between 1789 and 1791, and all relate to limiting the power of the federal government.
First Amendment: addresses the rights of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the freedom of assembly, freedom of petition, and also freedom of religion, both in terms of prohibiting the Congressional establishment of religion and protecting the right to free exercise of religion.
Second Amendment: declares the necessity for "a well regulated militia," and prohibits infringement of "the right of the people to keep and bear arms."
Third Amendment: prohibits the government from using private homes as quarters for soldiers without the consent of the owners. The only existing case law regarding this amendment is a lower court decision in the case of Engblom v. Carey.
Fourth Amendment: guards against searches, arrests, and seizures of property without a specific warrant or a "probable cause" to believe a crime has been committed. Some rights to privacy have been inferred from this amendment and others by the Supreme Court.
Fifth Amendment: forbids trial for a major crime except after indictment by a grand jury; prohibits repeated trials for the same offense after an acquittal (except in certain very limited
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Conditions that determine the direction of a state’s power are subject to a great deal of examination and political interest. One could argue that the United States, like all other countries since the late 18th century, have undergone such a transition.
This constitution, in America constitutes the supreme law. Initially, the United States constitution was composed of three branches defining the federal government; the Congress also referred to as the Legislature, Exercutive branch defining the presidency and the Judiciary constituted by the courts.
Those were uncertain times. There was much debate and discussion, but in the end, the Constitution was completed and It was now time to seek its ratification through nine special State conventions. States that did not ratify the Constitution would not become part of the United States and would be considered separate countries.
The constitution of the United States was written with an aim of protecting U.S citizens from its own government. The constitution also aims to keep the government from having total power over its citizens. Many historical documents and historical papers such as the Federalist papers, the Declaration of Independent and the Article of Confederation among others were influential to the development of the constitution of the United States.
Only three years after the end of American Revolution, the highly expected celebratory moments of triumph over the many years of British control was seemingly becoming elusive under the very watch of the founding fathers. Run by the Congress, which basically had virtually no control over individual confederation states.
Origins of American Criminal Law For us to have a meaningful discussion of the present criminal law in America we have to first look at a brief history. Criminal law in the US is largely based on English common law that was imported during the colonial times.
Obviously the United States Constitution, without a monarchy or a dictator, must spell where power rests. There is the need for a strong and central national government. Considering the fact that the government at the centre must be endowed with enough powers to perform their rightful duties, the Constitution is clear in dissemination of adequate power for the president, the secretary of state, etc.
The discovery of the New World is usually confused with its naming in 1502 by Americus Vespucius. It was in 1513 that Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean and Ponce Leon discovered Florida.
The 18th century was the period of revolutions in the US with the adoption of articles of Confederation on October 19th 1781.
In accordance with the constitution, the Congress was partitioned into two houses and the United States Federal Government was divided into three branches known as the legislative, judicial and the presidential branch. The legislative branch has the power