Legal and Environmental Issues in Hydraulic Fracturing Author’s Name Institutional Affiliation Abstract In nations where hydraulic fracturing has been adopted as a method of obtaining alternative energy, there is a lot of criticism associated with it. Most have argued that there are many environmental and health problems that have resulted from the process…
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This paper discusses the legal and environmental issues associated with the process and the regulations that have been put in place to ensure that the process is undertaken carefully and responsibility to counter the negative effects. Keywords: Hydraulic Fracturing, Environmental Issues, Legal Issues, Fracking, Consequences, Regulations, Laws Introduction Drillers of hydraulic fracturing have always maintained that the process is well managed as it is tightly controlled and take place far below the ground water levels but despite their assurance, there are many critics advocating for the process to be banned. As the shale revolution has gained fame, it has really triggered a lot of protesters from the Grand Rapids to Paris, as all of them call for a global frack down. For example, in the United States of America, critics worry that in embracing shale energy, there are health and environmental consequences, for example, there will be no clean air or clean water (Prud'homme, 2013). Definition of Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic fracturing is also known as fracking. It is a process that is used to suck oil and gas from dense shale formations. The process involves drilling, use of explosions, toxic chemicals, and millions of gallons of water pumped in at very high pressure. It allows the extraction of natural gas from shale in places that were once unreachable with conventional technologies (Prud'homme, 2013). In t6he United States, hydraulic fracturing is gaining recognition and companies involved with the process continue to identify sites to work on. Although it is argued that the process is conducted responsibly, a lot of dangerous occurrences have been reported raising questions of how safe the process is really. For example, there have been reports of blown out gas wells, polluted water sources, air and soil and affected human and animal health. Once a fracking procedure is conducted, it cannot be undone; for example, once a shale formation has fractured, it cannot be returned to its original state. This makes thorough research very crucial before any steps involved in hydraulic fracking proceed. This is especially important in highly populated regions (Prud'homme, 2013). Legal Issues that surrounds Hydraulic Fracturing Due to the process of hydraulic fracturing being used in some of the states in America, there have been legal issues that have been raised so as to ensure its effectiveness. The American court of appeals has had a debate on whether to regulate hydraulic fracturing for some time, as the SDWA has requested. The Clean Water Act requires cleanliness of all water to be maintained. Hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive process. This is because when a well is fractured hydraulically, the fluid injected returns to the surface as flow back, which is contaminated with sand, chemical residues, and some amount of naturally occurring radioactive materials. This is usually against the CWA (Clean Water Act) section 301, which prohibits the discharge of any pollutant into navigable water. In America, anyone seeking to release or discharge flow back and any water which is not natural is usually required to apply for a permit under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, as it is authorized by the CWA section 402 (Vann, Murrill &Tiemann, 2013). As hydraulic fractur
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Work Related Legal/Ethical. This paper discusses ethical issues of doing business. Whenever engaged in any kind of business, there is the need to adopt all ethical issues which ensure that the business will be able to realize its goals. Ethical responsibility improves operations of businesses hence making partnering much convenient for businesses reading from the same script.
This particular study focuses on the pathway of the states of New York alongside Pennsylvania in the writing of parametric policies that will regulate the oil-drilling operations and at the same time to protect the public safety by ensuring prevention of contaminating the water supplies and precluding some other side effects of Hydraulic Fracturing from taking place.
The new techniques of gathering digital evidence, however, ought to be reformed and premised on standard laws, in order to achieve proper regulation of digital evidence gathering. This is because the rapid development of computer technologies provides new challenges that were not covered under conventional laws; ordinary laws guide the gathering of physical proof and eyewitness statements (Casey, 2011).
The hydraulically made fracture acts as an outlet in coal or rock formation. The rock formation then allows coalbed methane or oil to move more without obstruction from the rock pores to the production well that brings it to the surface. The production of coalbed methane gas involves the adsorbed of the gas within small pores in the coal surrounding substance.
Fracturing stimulates oil production by opening up (fracturing) rocks containing oil and maintaining them in the fractured position. In doing so, oil freely flows into the oil well where it is pumped out for purification and consequent use. Hydraulic fracturing, which uses fluids under pressure to propagate and form fractures in the rock formation, seems to be the main form of fracturing in petroleum engineering.
These fluids are made by mixing water, sand and at least one chemical. The process has gain popularity around the world in countries such as United States of America, several European countries for example Germany, Sweden and France, and even South American countries like Brazil.
Moreover, reviewing the different manners through which the personnel attain the oil is imperative.
The definition of Hydraulic fracturing is the compressing of fractures from a thick layer of rock in an effort to obtain oil. In this process, there is the