Summaries of two articles - Essay Example

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Article Summaries Name Class number 25 March 2013 Summary of “Community Violence Exposure in Young Adults” In the article “Community Violence Exposure in Young Adults,” Scarpa (2003) aimed to understand the frequency and effects of exposure to community violence among young adults…
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Scarpa (2003) used past studies that she and her colleagues have conducted, as well as other studies on the victimization of college students, to support her findings and conclusions. According to the first study reviewed, which came from Scarpa’s (2001) study of 476 students from a rural university, Scarpa (2003) learned that low-risk groups were exposed to high levels of community violence. In particular, 95.6% of the participants witnessed violence, while 82% attested as victims of some kind of violence in their lifetime (as cited in Scarpa, 2003, p.213). Lifetime exposures were high too, where 90.2% reported witnessing at least three violent crimes in their lifetimes, while 63.6% reported being victimized at least three times (Scarpa, 2003, p.213). In the second study of Scarpa in 2002, the same high rates of exposure to community violence were reported (Scarpa, 2003, p.214). The three highest rates of witnessed violence involved seeing someone being hit by non-family members, seeing someone being threatened, and seeing a gun or knife used as a weapon on others (Scarpa, 2003, p.214). The three highest victimization experiences were being hit by anyone, being threatened, and being chased (Scarpa, 2003, p.214). ...
Scarpa (2003) also found gender differences, where physical assault was more prevalent for young men, while sexual assault was more common for young women (p.216). Aside from studying exposure levels, Scarpa (2003) determined the effects of community violence on young adults. After reviewing several articles, she noted that some of the predominant effects are depression, anxiety, and aggression, although not all adults exposed to violence experience physiological and psychological issues (Scarpa, 2003, p.217). As for the cycle of violence, Scarpa (2003) offered biosocial explanations, wherein poststressor cortisol, when combined with anxiety and learning violence from aggressive environments, can instigate the psychological shift from victim status to perpetrator of violence (p.219). Scarpa (2003) concluded that there are similarities in exposure to community violence between young adults in high and low-risk areas. These findings are logical because even low-risk groups experience violence, if violence becomes the norm of dealing with problems for some young adults and adults. In addition, low-risk people can be exposed to violence, when they are at high-risk activities, such as off-campus parties. Furthermore, the effects of exposure to community violence can vary for individuals, due to biological and social differences. Indeed, not all people who become victims of violence turn into perpetrators themselves. Finally, the author made sound conclusions because the result of the studies reflected the same prevalence as high-risk groups. Apparently, violence is not limited to high-risk groups, but is likely embedded in the cultural and social conditions of American society. Summary of “Self-reported Copycat Crime among a Read More
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