StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
In the paper “Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes,” the author discusses human traffickers around the globe in the developing countries to the Asian, African and the European markets. There are reasons that play important role in the growth of human trafficking to mentioned markets…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.6% of users find it useful
Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes"

Download file to see previous pages Some of these are a) slaves are available at cheap rate which ranges from USD 80 to USD 5000 or even more based on the quality of slaves b) bonded labors c) Forced prostitution d) Forced Marriage / Child Marriage e) Forced beggary (Symons, 2012). The major victims of slave trade are poor and downtrodden people of the society. Most of them are from destabilized states at the hands of war, natural calamities, poverty and those who suffered at the hands of civil unrest / civil wars. Q: Why is the scam letters referred to as “4-1-9” schemes?  The scam is referred to as “4-1-9” due to application of given modalities by the scammers. In addition, the article that deals with fraud as per Nigerian law and criminal code is numbered as 419 due to which, the Nigerian frauds are termed as 4-1-9 schemes (Dillon, 2008): a) Sending letters / faxes or emails to the victims by the impersonators posing themselves as representatives of foreign government agencies. b) Fake agencies offered victims millions of dollars to deposit in their personal accounts by way of “over invoice contracts”. c) Encouraged victims to travel to the destined places to complete the transactions. d) Scammers asked victims to provide blank letterhead of their company that enumerates phone numbers, fax numbers and email addresses to correspond. e) Scammers send number of fake official documents which look as good as authenticated. By way of this technique, the company convinced victims to pay off the upfront fees/charges in advance. f) The documents that relates to “419” schemes include: a) goods / services b) real estate business c) availability of crude oil at a dam cheap rate besides facilitation of conversion of currency. Q: What is the likely profile of a typical 4-1-9 victim?  The successful fraudulent cases so far unearthed relate to upfront fees / charges that were transferred to scammers. The modus operandi is that the applicant company / individual receives letter by mail from a Nigerian citizen claiming himself a top notch of the Nigerian Government. In the mentioned letter, the so-called Nigerian high official informs the company that in order to have a contract, the individual or the company has to deposit upfront fees/charges that ranges from USD 10 to 60 million as a precondition of the Nigerian Government. The source of information about the victims is a) Trade bodies b) Commercial Attaches c) Trade directories etc. They focus on a number of traders / companies of the targeted countries and send them emails, faxes and emails impersonating themselves as the high ups of the concerned ministry of the Nigerian Government in general and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in specific to strike a deal (“What is the ‘419’ Scam?”). The scammers invited victims to travel to the said country to materialize the transaction without going through the cumbersome procedure of seeking visa. By bribing the airport officials, they ensure entrance of victims in their country. Since the entrance in the mentioned country without having a valid visa is a serious offence, therefore the scammers use it against the victim to cow him down for the release of proposed funds. Apart from said tactic they do not mind in applying other harmful tactics if need arises.  ...Download file to see next pages Read More
Tags
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/law/1458832-final
(Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/law/1458832-final.
“Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/law/1458832-final.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes

Autoimmune Diseases and the Importance of Their Treatment in the Modern Society

The research should be considered as the basis (from a theory and practice perspective) of immunology as it is known today. During the years that followed the above studies, immunology was developed furthermore and many theories were stated while the methods of treatment were differentiated in order to respond to the changing living standards and styles of life. The main reason for the choice of the particular topic has been its importance for patients that suffer from one of the types of the particular disease. In fact, a study published in the Environmental Health Perspective (2003, 483) proved that “autoimmune diseases are chronic, potentially life-threatening conditions; there are more than 80 recognized autoimmune disea...
10 Pages (2500 words) Case Study

Faith and Works - Comparison of James 2:14 and Romans 4

While the apostles James and Paul agree that Faith connotes belief in God and Works connotes good actions, James contends that faith and works are both essential for salvation, while Paul asserts that faith is the only requisite.

James is unequivocal in his declaration that “faith by itself if it has no works, is dead” (2:17). However, he does not discount the importance of faith. His contention is that both are essential and one, without the other, is futile. He is addressing Christians, who, we may assume, are already among the congregation of the faithful, by virtue of their professed belief “that God is one” (2:19). Therefore, James accepts that faith is a precondition for salvation but asser...
7 Pages (1750 words) Assignment

Analysis of Isaiah 61:1-11 Book

The focus of this exposition is the book of Isaiah chapter 61: 1-11.  The King James Version of the Bible is used as well as the Judaica Press Complete Tanach Yeshayahu Chapter 61.  The Jewish Publication Society Tanach (1917) is also used.  Lastly, Rashi’s commentary is referred to as well.  It is worthy of mention that both the Jewish and Christian perspectives are explored here and that, in the true essence of research, one is not favored over the other.  Isaiah Ben Amoz was considered a prophet in his time. He was known to predict the deliverance of Jerusalem from the Assyrians. Jerusalem was freed from the control of the Assyrians in 701 B.C. which added to his credibility as a prophet. The whol...
13 Pages (3250 words) Research Proposal

Police and Society: Post 9/11

The paper then takes note of a number of initiatives that have attempted to combine local policing with intelligence work. This shift from crime-prevention to counter-terrorism has had a profound effect upon these local law enforcement divisions; lack of proper funding has also undermined these projects, leaving local officers with the ability to prevent terrorists, but either lacking in resources or risking becoming dependant upon intelligence divisions. The paper will then turn to a consideration of two local communities, Dearborn, Michigan, and Las Vegas, Nevada, that have been involved in these initiatives, and considers the impact of counter-terrorism policing upon the wider local law enforcement of the region.

By...
12 Pages (3000 words) Case Study

Dental Veneers as a Breakthrough in Modern Dental Technology

In today’s fashion-conscious world, porcelain and composite veneers remain some of the most popular choices for people seeking to improve the esthetics of their teeth. Porcelain veneers have several advantages when compared to composite veneers including durability, resistance to staining, and amount of tooth structure removed during the procedure.
First and foremost, the porcelain veneers are very durable. They are also very thin – usually between 0.5 - 0.7 millimeters – and brittle, although once bonded to a healthy tooth structure they can become quite strong. The bonding process increases durability and veneers made of porcelain can last for many years, oftentimes between 10-15 years depending on how wel...
8 Pages (2000 words) Term Paper

Traditional Women in the Modern World

It is within the family that many attributes of gender inequality are generated and replicated. Economic and interpersonal dependence on both genders and in various instances more vicious forms of inferiority, are classic elements of marriage and family. Women’s long-established roles leave them with the trouble of widespread domestic and nurturance obligations in addition to limited authority within the family. These trends represent gender inequality within the home and are echoed in the ideology justifying a gender-separated workforce in which women’s earnings and prospects are disproportionate to men’s. While almost every woman has some family bonds to men, by their kinship ties to their fathers and brothers,...
9 Pages (2250 words) Assignment

What Are the Most Important Factors in Explaining the Rise of the Modern State

Though the existence of the state can be felt in different walks of everyday life, yet it is an intangible whose nature is impossible to grasp. As a political institution, state embodies the concept of sovereignty. Devetak (2007) describes it as a political unit or a country that possesses sovereignty. State can thus be described as a single, unified whole confined within territorial borders. The state is built in a core geographical area with allowances to a certain extent on the boundaries. According to Strayer (1970), a state exists in the hearts and minds of the people. The collective personality of the state renders it immortal. The state is a multi-faced concept that is fuzzy around its edges. Consequently, we cannot develop...
6 Pages (1500 words) Essay

Evaluation of Children with Visual Impairment between Ages 4-12

A visually impaired child may suffer from incomplete sight, reduced vision, total blindness as well as legal sightlessness (Kelley and Gale p 45). It is a condition that may become severe in a child, thereby affecting its growth and development. The impact is usually dependent on the kind of loss, age at which it occurs, as well as the general body functioning of the child. The normal interest that is usually evident amongst children on seeing attractive items in their surroundings lacks in a visually impaired child. This may interfere with the child’s learning capabilities unless he/she is assisted to learn. The development of social behavior in children usually depends on the ability to see parents or those in charge of ca...
6 Pages (1500 words) Coursework

Humanistic Buddhism: A Way of Nirvana for Modern Man

However, how many people in today’s modern world are ready to renounce their life of comfort and materialistic pleasure to know the ultimate truth of life? Hardly anyone will be ready to renounce the pleasures of life. Hence, as Buddhism was believed to be a religion of suffering and severe self-discipline, very few people from the modern world were ready to practice it. However, Humanistic Buddhism, by modifying the teachings and simplifying the practices of the religion, gave a fresh and renewed beginning to Buddhism. Humanistic Buddhism, by modifying its practices to suit the social demands of modern life, has not just saved Buddhism from dying out but has also helped people to find happiness and satisfaction in life by s...
8 Pages (2000 words) Assignment

Discovering the Tragic Hero: Ancient and Modern

...Discovering the Tragic Hero: Ancient and Modern The concept of the tragic hero was first brought forward in ancient Greek mythology through the writings of the philosopher Aristotle as he described the important individual characteristics the tragic hero must possess. Although Aristotle outlines three requisite character traits that the tragic hero should possess, he qualifies the definition of the tragic hero with a set of events that must also take place before the hero can be considered truly tragic. Once this process is understood, it is easy to see how the sudden downfall of a mighty man, such as Oedipus the King from the play by Sophocles for example, would be dramatic and shocking to a public dominated by strict social classes...
9 Pages (2250 words) Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Modern Slavery and 4-1-9 Fraud Schemes for FREE!

Contact Us