Social exclusion and socioeconomic statuses have been central to the study of the over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities in criminal justice systems of many a country (Hills, 2002)…
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Social exclusion refers to the lack of acceptance, belonging and recognition of an individual or a community by others despite the fact that they may be neighbours in a city or a country (Friedman, 1993). Studies have shown that Black and Ethnic Minority (BEM) youths are the most affected by social exclusion in Wales and England. Interestingly, socially exclude youth are often found to be socially and economically vulnerable and have higher risks of living diminished lives in the eyes of the advantaged as well as in their own eyes (Applebaum et al., 2010). The social and economic changes in the free-market economies have been cited as the main causes of social exclusion of minority youths, more so in the Western countries. In addition, weaknesses and inequalities in government service provision have made socially excluded people rather vulnerable in many ways (Coker, 2003). For instance, in England and Wales, the socioeconomically deprived and socially exclude ethnic minority youths have been found to be at higher risks of being crime victims or offenders given their propensity towards committing crimes (CRC, 2008a). This paper thus explores the reasons youths from ethnic minority groups are over-represented in the criminal justice system of Wales and England and the possible approaches with which this trend may be addressed. The Criminal Justice System and Black Minority Youths Perhaps one of the most regrettable and enduring characteristic of the criminal justice systems is racial profiling and stereotyping of youths from minority ethnic groups (CRC, 2008b). Fortunately, there has been a considerable increase in the galvanisation of the link between minority ethnic groups and crime (University of Georgia, 2006). In worse cases, there have been so much racial stereotyping and crime profiling that black youths are referred to as ‘criminal predators’ (Silver, 1994). According to the Youth Justice Board (YJB), which reported that 1,822 young offenders were in custody in the 2010/2011 period, it is this profiling of minority youths that has subtly justified the over-representation of youths from minority ethnic groups and races in the criminal justice systems (BBC, 2011). Out of this population, minority ethnic youths constituted 39%, a 6% increase over the 2009/2010 period. However, the general figures of youth offenders dropped from 1977 of the 2009/2010 period (BBC, 2011). The Guardian also reported similar trends in both Wales and England, reporting that young black men accounted for nearly 40% of the population of youth jails in the two countries. Comparing the 2006 and the 2009/2010 period, the joint report with the Youth Justice Board (YJB) indicated an increase from 23% to 39% by young black youth composition (The Guardian, 2011). This over-representation is not only evident at the trial stages/courts but also in the correctional facilities such as prisons. Although, an unofficial policy, the tendency to racially and ethnically profile minority youths is so rampant that criminal justice practitioners openly practice it. Certain elements have been identified to be core to the culture of racial profiling and the emergence and practice of minority youth typification in the criminal justice system (Walker, 1977). While the number of minority youths incarcerated in the UK and Wales in the last three decades increased, the number of incarcerated white/majority has considerably gone down. Since historical times, youths from minority groups have consistently been over-represented at all the stages in the criminal justice system in the UK and Wales, the senior and the juvenile justice systems (Walker, 1992). In fact, this
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In the last few months, I have read research documents on the application of the handover process of critically ill patients from nursing staff of the emergency department to the staff in the intensive care unit. The appropriate transfer of information between the nurses of the emergency department and critical care units is essential in order to achieve continuity of effective, individualized, and safe patient care.
Part of my role involves quality assurance and because of this my line manager has decided to give me overall responsibility of implementing the change required within the youth service. The way staff collates and record their work needs to be changed by using the new computerized information system.
Youth Connexions All the young people in England of the ages 13 – 19 years are provided with support service by the government; the support service provided by the government to these young is referred to as connexions. The service aims at providing integrated guidance, advice and access to the group’s personal development and assists them in making smooth transition to working life and adulthood.
Most of these causes are related to the family lives that children experience at home. Some of the causes include physical and emotional abuse by their parents, relatives or guardians, lack of proper parental guidance, alcohol and drug abuse by any member within the family, financial constraints leading to lack of necessities for the children, inappropriate conducts of parents, physical disability and absence of one or both parents from the home, among many other causes (Valsiner, 2007).
Moreover, the definition of juvenile offender differs from country to country.3 In the UK, juvenile incarceration rates are among the highest in the world, though some communities have witnessed a slight decrease, largely due to local communities’ programs and attitudes towards juveniles.
Each item is rated true/false. The MVQ comprises two factors: Machismo, which relates to embarrassment over backing down, violence as an aspect of being male, justification of violence as a way of responding to a threat and/or an attack, and the strength and weakness associated with non-violence and fear; Acceptance of violence including overt acceptance and enjoyment of violence, in sport and in the media as well injunctions against violence as a behavior that is acceptable (Walker, 2005; Gilligan, 1996).
Thus criminology and sociology assume a very important dimension in the current effort by me as a social worker. Political influences on youth offending have received much less attention in the past and yet again power and politics have played such a big role in shaping and broadening the current interest in the subject by social workers (Case, 2009).
Many more are slain by rapists, sex attackers and jealous lovers. The problem is that many sex offenders are not imprisoned but subjected to residency laws and released. Thesis Stronger laws should be in place for Sex Offenders because current laws do not protect innocent population from cruelties and sexual abuse.
The real problem is with the first time offenders, who commit crimes in a fit of anger. Such offenders should not be allowed to interact with the hardened criminals in the prison and guided through reformation and rehabilitation courses, given direction and
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