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Stem Cell Legislation - Research Paper Example

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Stem Cell Research Legislation Name of Professor Institution Date \ Abstract This paper is an in depth research on the issues surrounding stem-cell research. The paper will analyze legislative standpoint in various countries with regard to the stem-cell research…
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Download file to see previous pages Stem Cell Research Legislation Stem cells are specific non-specialized cells mostly found in multi-cellular organisms and have the capabilities of dividing and differentiating into specialized cells when subjected under particular physiological conditions. Stem cells are categorized into two major groups depending on how each is obtained. The first category is the adult stem cells, which involve stem cells obtained from the body of an adult human being and which are capable of dividing and differentiating to regenerate the exact tissues from which they are obtained. Adult stem cells are said to present in the skin, bone marrows, liver, and brain. Adult stem cells are claimed responsible for every repair that occurs on a damaged skin and confirmed to cure cancer (Jayachandran, 2005). The second category of stem cell is the embryonic stem cells, which are obtained from a developing embryo. The embryonic stem cells are perceived to have massive potential for the treatment of degenerative diseases like the diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injuries among other terminal diseases. However, the belief attached to embryonic stem cell therapy on human beings was derived from a successful scientific test, which involved mice. Recently, pluripotent stem cell was innovated and is undergoing research before approval as an alternative source of stem cell. Owing to the fierce controversies that surround human embryonic stem cells research, many concerned countries have formulated laws, which either illegalize or support the research, to shelter the researchers from fear of rejections and assaults by the society. Developed countries like China, the UK, Korea, and Switzerland adopted progressive laws, which encourage the progress of research activities in this field (Schechter, 2010). Meanwhile, some other countries such as the USA tightened their legislations to oppose the research, a stand that has loosened with time. Under this topic, the paper will mainly focus on USA, a country that has undergone a series of changes in legislations governing human embryonic stem cell research. In the year 1996, the Congress passed a bill called Dickey Amendment, which prohibited the DHHS and the NIH from funding any activity that involves creation or destruction of human embryo for the purpose of research. However, the Bill did not restrict the use of private money in accomplishing the research. In 1998 when a successful isolation of human embryonic stem cell was achieved, DHHS attempted to interpret the bill in favor to federal funding on the research, but the critics of embryonic stem cell research overturned the move. Schechter (2010) avers that upon assuming office in 2001, George Bush announced that federal funding would be provided for research involving already existing stem cell lines. Additionally, President Bush under the rejected the amendment that required the government to relax its orders on the federal funding restrictions. The main historical change in the discipline of stem cell research took place in 2009 when President Obama signed an order overturning the previous orders of George Bush, which limited federal sponsorship on stem cell research (Skene, 2010). In September 2010, another Bill titled the Stem Cell Research Advancement Act of 2010 was presented to the Senate for voting. The Bill required that the federal money allocated for embryonic stem research be extended to cover excess embryos donated from IVF clinics. Furthermore, the bill ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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