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Reform of United Nation Security Council - Literature review Example

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Reform of United Nation Security Council Date Reform of United Nation Security Council Introduction The Security Council is an organ of United Nations. The Security Council first convened three years after the ratification of the UN Charter in 1945 (Lerner 2004)…
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Download file to see previous pages The council also settles disputes among member nations, and to attain this, military option may be resorted. The Council has 15 members, 5 are permanent while the 10 are non-permanent members (Kugel 2009). The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly and hold office for a term of two years (Kugel 2009). The five permanent members are China, France, Russia, UK and USA (Kugel 2009). Through the application of sanctions, the council can pressure an erring nation to cease from committing violence or aggression. Sanctions are imposed when diplomatic actions fail to restore peace in an area (Security Council Sanctions n.d.). The decisions of the Security Council are embodied in resolutions approved by majority of the members of the Council (Security Council Sanctions n.d.). Areas for Reform Considerations over introducing some reforms in the Council have started almost at the time of its creation. The increase in the composition of permanent members has also been suggested (Kugel 2009). For instance, the current permanent membership does not represent all the nations based on geographical consideration taking into account the changing geo-political realities (Kugel 2009). The move is also congruent with the attempt to make representation of all the member states more democratic (Kugel 2009). ...
The Council really proved ineffective on several issues during the Cold War since two of the permanent members were involved in this conflict. The two primary reform issues that have emerged concern the increasing number of members and the procedural rules in conducting its business. The membership issue also includes the voting system and structure. Amending the voting structure or composition of the Council may not be easily achieved since they would require the amendment of the UN Charter, and a quorum of two-thirds in the General Assembly (Kugel 2009). In the Assembly, permanent members can block the proposed amendments. During the General Assembly meeting in September 2008, the reform discussion deadlock was ended when members agreed to transfer the discussions from the Working Group to the intergovernmental negotiations in an informal plenary of the Assembly through resolution 62/557. The agreed agenda for reform mentioned in the resolution include: membership categories, veto power and concerns, regional representation, size of an expanded Council, working methods and procedures, and the Council’s relationship with the General Assembly (Kugel 2009). Changes in the Security Council Although the UN Security Council has been in existence for several decades now, it is still undergoing reforms to make it more efficient. The desired outcome of its sanctions may have an adverse effect upon the other nations. For instance, a sanction can affect the vulnerable sectors in the population or economy of another country (Security Council Sanctions n.d.). Thus, it is continually amending and refining its design and implementation so that collateral effects may be lessened. The refinements include ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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