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The criminal justice system in any country is one of the most difficult systems and processes to implement. It is difficult to implement because of the nature of the crimes themselves and because of the human elements involved in the criminal justice system…
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Just as humans are likely to commit errors of judgment, the criminal justice system, run by humans is likely to suffer such errors in judgment. These errors of judgment translate to guilty criminals going unpunished or being unapprehended, and to innocent individuals being sent to jail for crimes they did not commit. The terms “getting off on a technicality” are terms heard often enough when the legal provisions of the criminal justice system serve to protect the rights of all individuals, even those who are guilty. And yet these provisions are in place to protect the rights of the innocent and to afford due process of law. For which reason, most people remark and are resigned to the fact that when all is said and done the criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect. It is a statement which speaks of the need to “make do” because things “could have been worse.” It is important however to evaluate the difference and decide where the above statement indeed deserves the people’s resigned acceptance. This paper shall now consider the above statement and its merits in the actual criminal justice system. It shall consider the viability of the statement while assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the current Australian criminal justice system. ... The best argument in this adversarial system is used to decide on the case. The parties have control over their case and the presentation of evidence in their favour. They also have freedom to use legal representation if they so desire (Stacy, 1999). The parties also decide if there is a need for a jury in a civil case. The judge’s role in this adversarial system is to ensure that the case proceedings are impartial and fair. He has to make his decision based on his independent decision and he must oversee the proceedings in order to ensure that the rules of court are followed. In effect, while a jury rules over issues of fact, the judge decides over issues of law (Victoria University, n.d). In this adversarial system, there is a need to secure the rules of evidence and procedure. Each court has its rules which are meant to ensure fair and equal treatment of adversarial parties. It also ensures that the jury is not distracted by unnecessary materials and evidence; that unreliable and unfairly obtained evidence is not admitted in the court proceedings; and that evidence which is purely of character nature is not allowed to be entered in evidence (Victoria University, n.d). This adversarial system protects the strict rules of evidence and procedure where hearsay evidence, irrelevant evidence, opinion evidence, evidence illegally obtained, and prior convictions, as well as evidence reflecting bad character is not admissible in evidence (Victoria University, n.d). In this system, the burden of proof lies with the plaintiff or the party initiating the case. It requires proof beyond reasonable doubt for criminal cases, and balance of probabilities for civil cases
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Job costing and Process Costing are the two basic methods of costing. Job costing is suitable to industries, which manufacture or execute the work according to the specifications of the customers. Process costing is suitable to industries where production is continuous and the units produced are identical. All other methods are combinations, extensions or improvements of these basic methods.
1. JOB COSTING: It is also called specific order costing. It is adopted by industries where there is no standard product and each job or work order is different from the others. The job is done strictly according to the specifications given by the customers and usually, the job takes only a short time for completion. The purpose of...
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the revolution began in knowledge and information then accelerated gradually thereafter. It became now the foundation for many new services and products wherein 1974 applications pushed the limits of human ability. As an information system, research advanced so did user expectations. And the question raised is how individuals, the organization can adjust in order to leverage the delivery of information technology.
The infrastructure of the information technology (IT) affords the base for an organization to construct its information system needed to complete the work and provide the employee with all the necessary information. However, management decisions regarding IT are very...
An example is that of the Korean War (1950-53) which is said to transform the nature of the Cold War, while its initial impact was to solidify the division of the world into political, military, and economic spheres. Take Germany for instance where imperialism was a victim challenged by the historians for the destruction of the German Government along with its supporters used to conduct (Keylor, 2001, p. 44). That indicates economic expansion and territorial acquisition has always been a problem promoted since the First World War. Even in the 1920s, it was fashionable to declare the German empire on the threshold of the ‘Great War’ (Keylor, 2001, p. 44).
Europe in the global context remained tense and divide...
The project is envisioned to involve changes to existing business processes, changes to existing jobs, and/or the creation of new positions. With the new web-based version, customers and auto brokers will be able to view and pay their bills online, as well as access a billing customer service agent is required. This change will affect the billing, sales, and customer service departments but it is expected to reduce costs, improve customer satisfaction, and reduce the number of days for outstanding accounts receivable. Ownership of the existing system rests with the Billing Department. However, with the benefits projected to be derived from the upgraded system, especially with the implantation of the web-based version, the Cus...
In a computer, a processor commonly involves one or more microprocessors (also acknowledged as chips), which are silvers of silicon or other substance stamped with many little electronic circuits. To perform operations on data, the computer passes electricity all the way through circuits to execute an instruction (Norton 2001.p. 5). The innovation in technology has brought a lot of facilities for us. We have better ways of life and all the facilities regarding better production and domestic tasks. Such as in the industrial production we have automatic robots that are welding, packing, moving and carrying out several other development-related tasks. These robots are pre-programmed and microprocessors based chips are controlling all...
It is logical to look at political philosophy within the framework of history and ethics emerging from it. As could be observed, the question of justice, and how we perceive its nature has remained the prime concern throughout history. This will include, among other things, the existence of specific obligations towards each other and towards the state, the existence of natural rights, claims of property/liberty and equality.
In face of this, the Anglo-American political philosophy has seen famous philosophers like John Rowels, Robert Nozick and recently Amritya Sen to focus on issues and arguments concerning the above...(political Philosophy, 2005 pp1)
As political philosophy is about politics mainly, it s...
...Independent Research Study An investigation into the Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and its Capa for Addressing the Needs and Expectations of the Hospitality Industry in the Country
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Date : September 29, 2009
Word Count : 3,069 words
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Table of Contents
I. Consultant’s Brief 4...
This is also the position Stone (2007) takes in the quote under discussion. Furthermore, Stone goes on to declare that Australia has been very slow to implement this practice as compared with other countries and government agencies. One of the primary reasons is that the public policy system in Australia is quite complex and the decision-makers have not come into agreement on where to place it in the policy matrix. This leaves Interprofessional Practice and Education in the dark (or the cold) as far as strategic planning for implementation as well as placing itself within the funding cycles of the government disbursements. (Stone, 2007) Policies are created in order to put in place how politicians and government official...
They are on trial and will be dealt with fairly. These laws ensure that no one, even if he or she has committed a crime is abused or punished cruelly. Following the history of civilization like in china, we see the traces of systems for Criminal justice in order to provide safety for the citizens. Evolving through the years laws have been modified and changed to form the system that we know today. From its start, the “U.S. criminal justice system” has advocated the idea of “checks and balances”. To avoid dictatorial rule, the people who founded this system in such a way that one person was not given control or authority completely to punish the criminals. The idea of assigning a ‘jury...
In order to compare the welfare system of the three proposed countries, it is important to first develop a comparative method that would guide in comparing the three states. For the purpose of this paper, a binary comparison would be conducted. The implicit comparison would deal with Britain while the explicit comparison would explore the USA and Canada. Thereby a small N’ study would be used, that is, of three countries. The three countries selected to share a similarity in the form that these countries are a welfare state. This is when welfare is mainly funded by the state. While the USA and Canada focus on the liberal welfare state, the welfare state of the UK is not quite defined. The comparison of the welfare...
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