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Criminal justice comprehensive exam - Essay Example

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE COMPREHENSIVE EXAM Name Institution Criminal Justice Comprehensive Exam Question 1: Criminological Theory Describe the current ‘crime picture’ Cybercrime refers to any criminal activity that is conducted over the internet and has been steadily rising over the years…
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Download file to see previous pages The perpetrators of such crimes have been known to create and distribute viruses that have been known to disrupt a company's daily operations. Cybercrimes vary in their nature; there are those criminals who use the internet to accomplish other traditional crimes like drug trafficking while there are those who utilize this technology to carry out the technological crimes like bank fraud and identity theft (Ponemon Institute, 2012). Compare your findings above in (a) to previous years. In 2011, the average cost of cybercrime was estimated at $8.4 million which represented a 6 percent increase in cost from a previous study (Ponemon Institute, 2012). The number of attacks also increased by 42 percent from 72 successful attacks per week to 102 successful attacks per week (Ponemon Institute, 2012). The Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC) reported that there was a decrease in data breech in 2011 (n=419). It was also reported that this decline came after there had been an increase in 2006 (n=662) of breeches which characterized a wide range of cybercrimes (Finklea & Theorhary, 2013). Apply a criminological theory (just one!) to describe why this particular crime problem exists to the extent that it does, The psychoanalytical theory of crime was developed by Sigmund Freud to explain some of the causes of crime in the world. In his theory, the human personality has three psychic structures commonly referred to as the identity, the ego and the super ego (Toch, 1979). Through the identity, one seeks to pursue instant needs without any thoughts or analysis. Through the ego, one seeks to pursue needs that are influenced by their educational status and socialization processes. The super ego on the other hand results from all lessons that individuals have learned from their parents. Therefore, crime will often result when a person's identity surpasses their super ego resulting in actions that are only fueled by apparent need without further thought of their consequences. Therefore, the hacker will perform the classical psychological crime because of their apparent need for social rewards in the form of fame or money. They do so without paying attention to the obvious consequences like punishment by the law. The structures of education and family lessons have failed to take root in this person's identity because they are still driven by material needs. It is because of this that programs to prevent hacking are developed that focus on administration of computer ethics education at the early stages of life of a child (Ponemon Institute, 2012). According to the theory in (c), explain the changes in the pattern of the crime from previous years compared to today There has been a significant increase in the costs that have been incurred in cybercrime in 2011. This can be attributed to the policy that was introduced to enhance cyber space security. This was the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace: Enhancing Online Choice, Efficiency, Security, and Privacy that was released in April 2011 (Finklea & Theorhary, 2013). this policy was meant to create an identity ecosystem whereby individuals were to authenticate their on-line identities and the identities of their digital devices. Through the establishment of these laws, hackers perceived a challenge presented by the President and sought to connect with their identities (Sigmund Freud's theory). Hence in order to seek fame and powers that had been denied by the enactment of this policy, hackers increased ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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