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DWI Plea Bargaining and Recidivism and relevance to deterrence and social learning theory - Thesis Example

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The author of this paper will focus on social learning theory. The researcher of paper will also attempt to focus on general deterrence theory and synthesize the two theories and create a conclusion, based upon the evidence at hand. …
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DWI Plea Bargaining and Recidivism and relevance to deterrence and social learning theory
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Download file to see previous pages From the research it can be comprehended that social learning theory and general deterrence theories are two theories which may be used to combat the problem of drinking and driving. Social learning is based upon group behavior, and the assumption that groups have the same norms, values and beliefs, which are transmitted through the group. Behavior may also be punished or rewarded within the group, and modeling plays a part, in that individuals look at each others' behavior and imitate this behavior. The group also has definitions, which serve as justifications or excuses for behavior. This is the most important part of social learning theory. General deterrence theory, on the other hand, focuses on reinforcement, as opposed to association. It is solely focused on punishment, and the theory is that if punishment is both severe and certain, it is more likely to deter others from engaging in this particular behavior. This theory has less scientific evidence supporting it, although it can coincide with social learning theory, in that part of social learning theory concerns vicarious reinforcement, which means that individuals in a group see others in their group be rewarded or punished for behavior, and react accordingly. General deterrence is a part in that, if a member of a group is punished, then this is a model to others to stop the behavior. Social learning theory has been implicated in criminality, in particular with regards to violence. Rosenstock, Stretcher, and Becker (1988) state that social learning theory is based upon expectancies and incentives. The expectancies consist of expectancies regarding environmental clues (how events are connected, and what leads to what); expectancies about the consequences of one's own actions; and expectancies regarding one's own competency to perform the behavior necessary to achieve the desired outcome. The incentives part of this equation consists of value of the particular outcome. Akers, Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce, Radosevich (1979) conceive of social learning theory as a variance of operant conditioning combined with learning by observing other's behavior. In other words, social learning is dependent upon the factors governing operant conditioning, which is dependent upon rewards to reinforce good behavior and punishment to deter bad behavior. Either deviant or conforming behavior may be reinforced, depending upon the punishment and rewards one gets for one or the other behavior. Observation of others is the other part of this equation, and this is where individuals learn by watching others what kind of behavior is rewarded or punished. Others model for them what behavior is good and what behavior is bad – in particular, people learn from others who have great influence in their lives, like peers, teachers or parents. Akers (2006) states that social learning consists of four variables. The first is differential association. This means that the individual associates with others with behaviors, values and norms which are supportive of the particular act in question. This association may either be with peers, parents or others, and it may also be association with video games, television, on-line groups and the like. A definition refers to rationalizations, justifications and excuse for the behavior. Differential reinforcement refers to the anticipation of rewards or punishment for the behavior. Generally, the more likely the behavior is to be rewarded, the more likely the person will engage in this behavior. Imitation refers ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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This thesis was always my weak point. I could never finish it successfully. Still, after I found this precise document, I understood how it should be completed. So, I performed my research afterward and completed the thesis in several hours, instead of days as it was previously.

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