Nobody downloaded yet

Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Audience Research - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical  Considerations Used in Audience Research  Add Add Add Add Date Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical  Considerations Used in Audience Research  Introduction Admittedly, audience has a very vital role in media communication…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.5% of users find it useful
Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Audience Research
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Audience Research"

Download file to see previous pages There are many factors the content producers take into consideration while producing their text. They are audience engagement, audience expectations, audience fore-knowledge, audience identification, audience placement, and audience research. Though there are various methods adopted for media research, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of ethnography as it is claimed by many that in order to understand a group, it is very important to live with them and to ‘become one among them’. Theories on Media and Audience According to the Frankfurt School (Cited in Hanes, 2000), media is like a hypodermic syringe; and this ‘Effects’ model envisions that media injects its contents into the thoughts of the audience, and the audience accepts the thoughts, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs expressed by the media without questions. Evidently, this model has its birth based on the German fascist use of media for propaganda which was later followed by the American capitalist society. However, theorists were sure that media does not have such a direct influence on the minds of people. According to some, media only has a weaker influence on people. Other more prominent influences will be factors like religion and personal contacts. As Gunter (2000, pp. 10-11) opines, the ‘Effects’ model failed mainly because it did not take audiences as individuals with their own beliefs, opinions, and attitudes. Another new approach to the relation between media and audience was the ‘Uses and Gratification’ model. This model does not look into how media affects the audience, but how the audience uses the media. According to the new concept, audiences have various needs, and for the fulfillment of these needs, they turn to media for the consumption of information. This model acknowledges that audience has a choice of texts to choose from. The Uses and Gratification model assumes that the audiences’ wish for satisfaction results in the media providing output to fulfil their desires. So, this is against the Effects model that claims that audience are made to enjoy whatever is produced by the media. However, the two models failed look into the influence of their social background on how people interpret the meaning of the text. So, there arose another theory, the ‘Screen Theory’, that suggests that the audience are positioned by the media text. According to the theory, all media texts have a mode of address, which means that media text addresses its intended users in a particular way, trying to establish a link between the producer and the audience. For example, when the tabloids go for a more emotional, and at times, xenophobic language, for the broadsheet papers, the language is more impersonal and formal. However, the failure of Screen, Uses and Gratification, and Effects models is that they all point out that meaning is embedded within the text, and audience can easily accept these meanings without questioning them. However, as audiences too have their own beliefs and opinions, they do not readily accept and agree with the meanings in the text. According to the current theory on media influence, there is a preferred embedded meaning in each text. However, the way the meaning is decoded by each individual audience depends on various frameworks outside the text, ranging from class, gender, age, education and cultural values. So, the individual interpretation of the meaning embedded in the text ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Essay)
“Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Audience Research

Research Summary and Ethical Considerations

...? Research Summary and Ethical Considerations Research Summary and Ethical Considerations Introduction Measles is an extremely contagious disease, and it is transmitted from one person to another through the body fluids from the nose and mouth. It is usually more prevalent, in young children and the most vulnerable are those who do not have immunity from it. Immunity can be acquired if a person had the disease before or received a vaccine from it. The disease is becoming more rampant in Houston as identified in the children admitted in the Texas Children Hospital (Wheeler, 2007). Many suspected that the cause of disease is because of lack of knowledge of the hospital personnel like the nurses and doctors. The disease being highly... of...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Research Summary and Ethical Considerations

...? Research Summary: Overview and Ethical Considerations Research Summary: Overview and Ethical Considerations Background of the Study There is a lack of potential behavioral and biological information on autism incidence in infants from 0-1 year. The reason for this is the very nature of autism, which is more behavioral rather than biological. Due to this, it is hard to define and diagnose autism at an early age. The significance of the study is the fact that early-detection and intervention aids in ensuring the best possible future for the individual. The purpose of the research is to determine if autism can successfully...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Ethical research

...?Ethical Research QUESTION The various major ethical issues in behavioral research generally include risks, benefits, deception, debriefing, informed consent and justice. In this regard, behavioral risks encompass various factors i.e. physical harm or psychological risks and even loss of confidentiality. These risks usually deliver potential threats to the behavioral pattern of an individual. Behavioral research not only possesses risks but also certain benefits as well. Benefits that can be derived from behavioral research are direct benefits pertaining to acquiring knowledge, new skills, educational benefits, treatment...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Media Audience contextualised. While researching on the key issue of ethnography, mostly it is done on the constraints placed on the media. Media ethnography studies various fields of media and how it could be used in understanding the audience. "Audiences are not blank sheets of paper on which media messages can be written; members of an audience will have prior attitudes and beliefs which will determine how effective media messages are," Abercrombie (1996, p. 140). Media ethnography is a new methodology, and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Research skills

...patients. Title and Abstract In the title and abstract, everything was already highlighted and students who intend to use it as a secondary source would already know the main point of the authors, which was to assess whether QoL and oxygen uptake among patients with CHF were in fact affected positively when they engaged in physical activities. The title was in itself the aim stipulated by the abstract, but it was not clear as to who the target audience of the authors were. So judging from the abstract alone and disregarding the nature of the journal wherein the article was published, it could have been addressed to the general public who might seek the research for their respective...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Why are ethical considerations important in contermporary social research

...that the subjects can be able to make informed decisions about their participation. Following the broad aspect of ethical guidelines stated above, it is clear that for a contemporary social research to be undertaken, there are a couple of things that need to be fulfilled to ensure that the findings are not tainted in anyway by using un-scientific methods. These are the ethical considerations that need to be considered before during and after the contemporary sociological research. Voluntary Participation Among the situations that are most susceptible to ethical malfunctions are the social researches...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Ethical Considerations

...Ethical Considerations Burn’s sensitivity means that he has stronger feelings than other officers. This can be considered a weakness. Therefore, the supervisor should have researched on how to deal with this problem. Through training need analysis the supervisor should have recognized burns problem and informed him of it (McCarthy, 2005). This should be done confidentially. This is to go as per the international norm and ethical consideration. The supervisor should understand burn has rights and freedom and should not mishandle him. The supervisor should also counsel Burn on the importance good relation. Bad relations lead to often conflicts among...
2 Pages(500 words)Case Study

Research skills

...course requirements. The author in line with obtaining a Masters in Maritime Operations, had a number of competencies that made him an ideal candidate to be granted a chance by the university to pursue the course (University of Nottingham, 2014). Rational thinking is one of the most sought after skill in any professional course because students who possess the ability will be able to solve complex problems on their own without much supervision from instructors (Chisholm, 2005). The masters’ level of education is particularly an advanced stage in which the input from the tutors is limited and much of the course work is done by the learners. These include research work as well as coming up with new...
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework

Research skills

...Research skills Pipe Flow Modelling of Container Terminal Logistics Terminal a) The Port of Alexandria in Egypt experience congestions and inefficiencies due to a Increase in the level of goods passing through it. In addition, the case study is a company operating in both ports Alexandria and El Dekhiela Ports in Egypt. The company handles all the container activities at the El Dekhiela and Alexandria container terminals. Both container terminals experience an increase in the exports and imports passing through it due to increased international trade across Egypt (ElMesmary, Song & Dinwoodie, 2014). The increased level of activities at the ports causes congestions because of an increase in the dwell...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Ethical considerations

...Four main ethical rules can be defined and should be followed by everybody who is going to write a research paper. These rules and the best way to follow them are described below. The first important thing is certainly causing no harm to those who will take part in the research and make them feel safe. During the investigation the information will be taken in web and the participants will not be involved in this process, thus the first principle will be followed. The second important rule is obtaining consent of participants. As the information used for the investigation is in the public domain, consent may not be needed and the information should be properly referenced....
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Media Ethnography: Research Skills and Ethical Considerations Used in Audience Research for FREE!

Contact Us