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Usually, the networks consist of numerous sensor nodes deployed in vast environments (Eslaminejad 2011, p. 23). These nodes are expected…
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Internetworking Switches and Routers Module Written ASSIGNMENT
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Routing Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are among the most efficient mechanisms used to control and monitor buildings, battlefields and forests. Usually, the networks consist of numerous sensor nodes deployed in vast environments (Eslaminejad 2011, p. 23). These nodes are expected to be energy efficient and serve long periods without technical failures. Therefore, routing protocols/mechanisms has been developed in order to utilize the limited power of nodes efficiently. These mechanisms play a great role in improving the performance of sensor nodes, as well as transmission of data. Routing protocols are divided into four categories, which includes hierarchical, flat, geographic and Quality of Service (QoS) routing mechanisms (Eslaminejad 2011, p. 24).
First, the flat routing protocols are used to reduce or omit the redundant information originating from the primary sensor nodes. In these protocols, the sensor nodes perform the same task as well as forwarding data to the sink nodes. Data centric methods are used in these networks in order to eliminate the extra information thus reducing energy consumption. Flat protocols use two data centric methods, which include Direct Diffusion and Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN). The methods reduce energy consumed by the sensor nodes, thus elongating the lifespan of the WSNs (Sohraby, Minoli and Znati 2007, p. 109).
In hierarchical routing protocols, data transmission is conducted by clusters rather than individual nodes deployed in the harsh environments. Clustering technique is a common method used in this routing mechanism so as to save energy consumed in the entire WSNs. Clusters formed in these WSNs consist of a number of sensor nodes. The individual sensor nodes send data to the cluster heads, which in turn aggregates that data before transmitting it to the base station. Large amounts of energy are, therefore, saved when WSNs use the clustering method. The mechanism operates in a hierarchical order where primary nodes send information to the cluster heads, which in turn send it to the sink nodes (Garcia-Hernardo 2008, p. 123).
The QoS-based routing mechanisms employed in WSNs aim at ensuring there is a balance between the energy consumption and data quality. WSNs applying the QoS concept should satisfy various parameters such as the delaying time and bandwidth. SAR (Sequential Assignment Routing) is one of the protocols that apply the concept of the QoS. Application of SAR allows WSNs to withstand technical failures at low power consumption. QoS-based WSNs systems are aims at sending the quality data to the sink node using low energy for the increased lifespan of the WSNs (Misra and Woungang 2009, p. 90).
The sensor nodes used in the geographic protocols use the location data/information to transmit data to the desired zones. Large amount of energy is saved when data is sent to specific locations rather than wide sensor fields. The sensor nodes should know their geographic positions using the Global Positioning System (GPS) (Eslaminejad 2011, p. 29).
In conclusion, the flat protocols are aimed at reducing energy consumption by reducing redundant information sent to sink nodes. The hierarchical protocols minimize energy consumed through data aggregation. QoS-based protocols, on another hand, check the data quality and the energy efficiency problems. Location-based mechanisms use the GPS in order to send data to specific zones rather to the whole sensor fields. These protocols should be improved so as to allow single WSNs to send information fast, adapt to changes and reduce energy consumption. In other words, more integrated routing protocols should be designed so as to increase the effectiveness of WSNs during applications.
Reference List
Eslaminejad, M R, Sookhak, M, Razak, S A and Haghparast, M 2011, A Review of the Routing Mechanisms In Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications 2(7).
Garcia-Hernardo, A-B 2008, Problem solving for wireless sensor networks, London, Springer.
Misra, S & Woungang, I 2009, Guide to wireless sensor networks, London,
Springer.
Sohraby, K, Minoli, D & Znati, T F 2007, Wireless sensor networks technology, protocols, and applications, Hoboken, N. J, Wiley-Interscience. Read More
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