Peer pressure - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Employee engagement generally refers to a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind characterized by displays of vigor, dedication, and absorptions of the employee in their job tasks. Engaged employees do not feel emptiness or burnout while doing their jobs. While vigor…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.3% of users find it useful
Peer pressure
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Peer pressure"

The Effect of Peer Pressure on the Level of the Employees Engagement in Hail Saudi Arabia (Women Branch) Task The Effect of Peer Pressure on the Level of the Employees Engagement in Hail University- Saudi Arabia (Women Branch)
Research Questions
What effect do these variables have on employee engagement?
What extent of peer pressure is comfortable for the organization?
What strategies does the organization have to take in order to promote positive employee engagement?
Dependent Variables
Level of Employee Engagement
Employee engagement generally refers to a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind characterized by displays of vigor, dedication, and absorptions of the employee in their job tasks. Engaged employees do not feel emptiness or burnout while doing their jobs. While vigor refers to high levels of energy and mental resilience during work, dedication is strong involvement in one’s work and the experience of enthusiasm and fulfillment.
Independent Variables
Active Peer Pressure
Peer influence refers to the level of influence that a peer group, observers, as well as other individuals exert on another individual or group in order to encourage others to change their values, attitudes, or behaviors so that they may be in conformity with the norms and practices of the group. As such, active peer pressure refers to the explicit offer from an external force to join or be part of a group and verbal criticism following in the event of refusal to join the group. Active peer pressure affects employee engagement by forcing these employees to be part of a group, and as such, create an atmosphere that develops social cohesion and appropriate employee engagement. Positive peer pressure encourages active employee engagement whilst negative peer pressure discourages active employee engagement.
Passive Peer Pressure
Passive peer pressure capitalizes on the independent personal desires of an individual or an employee to fit into a given group, or to adopt both the values and practices of other groups or members of the organization. Passive peer pressure may either encourage or discourage employee engagement depending on its nature. For instance, an employee who wants to be part of the executive team may adopt that peer pressure to grow and develop him or herself through active employee engagement in order to get recognition from the management, and as such, create a good name for a promotion to the executive team.
Moderating Variables
Mental Strength
Mental strength refers to the collection of attributes within and individual that allows the person to persevere through difficult times or circumstances without losing confidence, such as standing against peer pressure and upholding their own morals and beliefs.
Supervisory Assistance
This is assistance from a person with a higher authority within the organization, which enables and encourages an individual employee to overcome their problems and fears, as concerning issues related to pressure from peers.
Control Variables
Education of Employee
Organizational Culture
Mediating Variables
Mediating variables help to explain how or why the independent variables affect the dependent variables the way they do. For example, in this case, Performance Appraisal (Mediating variable) can be the reason why peer pressure (Independent variable) causes employee engagement (Dependent variable) to vary from one employee to another. In this study, the mediating variables may include:
Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is a strategic goal that enables the organization to assess its workers and appraise them according to their performance, by recognizing hard work and success, while punishing laziness and laxity at the work place. Through performance appraisal, an organization gets to know the level of performance of its workers, evaluate their input towards productivity and reward them for their good work.
Performance appraisal is a development-oriented goal because it enables the organization to analyze the performance strategies of the employees, and as such, determine the productivity of the organization. By enhancing the performance of each employee in the organization, analyzed through appropriate performance appraisals, the organization is keen to achieve its projected goals and objectives, thereby making the tool an appropriate concept for development-oriented goals of the organization.
Consequently, it also enables the organization to recognize employees who are working hard in the institution and promote, give them a salary raise, or other bonuses. This also encourages employees to work much harder since they get the attention of the management. It reduces peer pressure, as employees will want to stand out of a group rather than belong to a certain group so that they can get recognition from the organizations, such as standing out of the ordinary.
Affect (Employee Emotions - Employee Mood)
Affect is very strong in determining the effect of peer pressure within an organization. An employee will want to stay where their emotions and moods get the necessary accommodation as deserved, and as such, will either join groups or stay out of groups depending on their emotions and their personal moods. Emotional stability creates an enabling environment for employees to discharge their duties diligently and as such in an effort to enhance the productivity of the organization. Employees with a positive mood towards their work and the organization perform their duties more diligently as opposed to employees who have negative moods. This will also have a great effect on the effect of peer pressure within the organization.
Theory Suggestions
Social Learning Theory
This theory originated from Albert Bandura while he was researching modeling and limitation (Fedman, 1993). The theory postulates that behavior learnable at the cognitive level by observation of what people around a person are doing. According to Bandura, people can imagine themselves in the same situations as other, working in the same way and achieving the same outcomes. Once the individual learns the behavior, then he or she can take different actions depending on the outcomes of the behavior.
For instance, it is possible to reinforce the outcomes if they are desirable or it to punish these outcomes if they turn out to be undesirable. Social leaning theory is a psychological theory largely developed from the operant conditioning theory. The later theory bases on the concepts of motivation, reinforcement and punishment. In Bandura’s explanation of self-learning theory, self-reinforcement or external reinforcement influence motivation.
In this study, the theory is applicable in the discussion of the effect of peer pressure on employee engagement on the same principles laid down by Bandura. Employees in all organizations learn from others by observing their actions and asking questions among other things. Some of the things they learn from others may be helpful towards improving work engagement while others may not. It is therefore imperative to reinforce the traits that are good for work engagement among the employees through different types of motivation, either from fellow employees or from the organization. On the other hand, traits negative to motivation are punishable.
Amy. (2013). Personal Hygiene Issues Stump Workers. The Chicago Tribune. February 24, 2013. Retrieved from:
Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources Model: State of the Art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309–328.
Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2008).Towards A Model of Work Engagement. Career Development International, 13, 209–223.
Bakker, A. B., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2009). The Crossover of Daily Work Engagement: Test of an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1562–1571.
Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E., & Xan-thopoulou, D. (2007). Job Resources Boost Work Engagement Particularly When Job Demands Are High. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 274–284
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182
Barsade, S. (2002). The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion and Its Influence on Group Behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 644–677
Brian, T. (2012). Six Time Management Tips to Increase Productivity and Improve Your Organizational Skills. Brian Tracy’s Blog, June 7, 2012. Retrieved from:
Chidambaram, V. & Ramachandran, A. (2012). A Study on Efficiency of Employee Training Review of Literature. Business Theory & Practice, 13(3), 275-282.
Chowhan, J., Cooke, G., Karlene, H. & Zeutinoglu, I. (2008). Low-Paid Workers and On-The-Job Training in Canada. Relations Industrielles, 63(1), -29.
Collings, D. & Wood, G. (2009). Human Resource Management: A Critical Approach. London: Routledge Publishers.
Digital Landfill. (2010). Eight Ways Your Organization Can Improve Efficiency, Increase Productivity, and Reduce Risk. Digital Landfill, January 06, 2010. Retrieved from:
Dyck, B. & Neubert, M. (2008), Management: Current Practices and New Directions. Boston: Houghton Miffl in Harcourt Publishing Company.
Eduardo, S. & Rebecca, G. (2011). The Transfer of Training: What Really Matters. International Journal of Training and Development, 15(2), 103-120.
Feldman, P. (1993). The Psychology of Crime A Social Science Textbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibb, S. (2003). “Line Manager Involvement in Learning and Development: Small Beer or Big Deal?” Employee Relations, 25(3), 281-293.
Halbesleben, J.B., & Wheeler, A. R. (2008). The Relative Roles of Engagement and Embeddedness in Predicting Job Performance and Intention to Leave. Work & Stress, 22, 242–256.
Hamlet, C. & Demand Media. (n.d). How to Improve Productivity in an Organization. The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved from:
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-Unit-Level Relationships between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279.
Heinrich, C., Hill, C. & Lynn, L., 2002, Improving Governance: A New Logic for Empirical Research, Georgetown University Press, Georgetown.
Hitt, M., Hoskisson, R. & Ireland, D. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization, Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning.
Jackson, S., Schuler, R. & Werner, S. (2012). Human Resource Management. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning.
Jean-Francois, C. (2011). Does National Culture Affect Firm Investment in Training and Development? Academy Of Management Perspectives, 25(4), 85-87.
King, M. (2011). HR: Your Friend Or Your Foe? The Guardian. May 28, 2011. Retrieved from:
Lawler E. E. (1973). Motivation in Work Organization. Monterey: Brookes-Cole Publishing, P. 61-87
Leist, L. (2011). Eliminate the Chaos at Work: 25 Techniques to Increase Productivity. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Lohr, S. (2013). Big Data, Trying To Build Better Workers. The New York Times. April 20, 2013. Retrieved from:
Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007).Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The Meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Menon, R. (2010). Employees’ Emotional Satisfaction. Gulf News. April 18, 2010. Retrieved from:
Parker, S. K., & Ohly, S. (2008). Designing Motivating Jobs. In R. Kanfer, G. Chen, & R. Pritchard (Eds.), Work Motivation: Past, Present, and Future. SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series.
Perlow, L. (2012). Why ‘Work-Life Balance’ does not Work. The Washington Post. July 11, 2012. Retrieved from:
Rothmann, S., & Storm, K. (2003). Work Engagement in the South African Police Service. Paper Presented At The 11th European Congress Of Work And Organizational Psychology, 14–17 May 2003, Lisbon, Portugal.
Salanova, M., Agut, S., &Peiro, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217–1227.
Sandra, S. (2011). Improved Management Productivity and Control. Improved Productivity, September 19, 2011. Retrieved from:
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job Demands, Job Resources, And Their Relationship With Burnout And Engagement: A Multi-Sample Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2007).Work Engagement: An Emerging Psychological Concept and Its Implications for Organizations. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner, & D. P. Skarlicki (Eds.), Research In Social Issues In Management (Volume 5): Managing Social And Ethical Issues In Organizations. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers
Simons, R. (2011). Human Resource Management: Issues Challenges and Opportunities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Zajac, E. & Shortell, M. 1990. Perceptual and Archival Measures of Miles and Snows Strategic Types: A Comprehensive Assessment of Reliability and Validity. Academy of Management Journal, 33:817-32. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Peer pressure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1”, n.d.)
Peer pressure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1. Retrieved from
(Peer Pressure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1)
Peer Pressure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1.
“Peer Pressure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Peer pressure- cause and effect

...? Peer Pressure Peer Pressure- cause and effect Peer pressure, a natural phenomenon, occurs when people falling intothe same age bracket influences and exerts pressure on the significant other to do things that, under prevailing circumstances, one won’t do. Here, peers tries to modify one’s norms, behaviors, attitudes and conform to other’s standards. It is only human nature to adapt and get influenced by people from one’s group. People usually conform to the peer pressure to resolve external conflicts such as social rejection. But to do so, people usually end up...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Peer Pressure

...?Peer Pressure My first interviewee was a fifteen year old boy. When I asked him about the most significant challenge that he faced, he whispered in my ears that he was dealing with the psychological trauma resulting from gynecomstia, a condition in which some boys grow excessive breast tissue during puberty because of hormonal imbalances that makes their chest resemble that of females (Braunstein, 1999). The boy said that he was teased by his class fellows in school who pointed fingers towards his chest and sidelined him as a girl. He was too sensitive to the mockery and was starting to get into social exclusion because of that. He told me he preferred to avoid too much interaction with his class fellows...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Greek Life and Peer Pressure

...?John Q. Doe English 344 8 May 2000 Greek Life and Peer Pressure (1st Introduction) In nature, red and black ants cannot tolerate one another. When a red ant crosses the path of a black ant, the two will fight to the death. Additionally, if red ants colonize an area, they will drive out all black ants and vice versa. This behavior insures the dominance of whichever species of ants colonizes the area. If one examines a college campus, this same type of behavior exists, and not just with ants. Greek fraternities and sororities use similar tactics to gain members, control territory, and exert influence on the college community. (Alternate Introduction) College campuses nationwide are a social extension of high school. The students... at...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Teen Issues and Peer Pressure

...? Teenage pregnancy and Peer Pressure Introduction Teenage pregnancy is the pregnancy of girls of aged 19 years or less. Teenage pregnancy is most common among young girls that lead a disadvantaged life, which leads to their identification with poor expectations about the job market, their education or their family life/ situation (Mestad et al., 2011). Many cases of teenage adolescence are caused by the lack of access to pregnancy prevention methods among the teenagers and the people living close to them. This paper will explore the causes of teenage pregnancy, relate it to peer pressure and present a possible solution to the problem. Discussion Different factors can be...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Peer Pressure

...Peer Pressure and Bullying Introduction There is little doubt that bullying is a problem in today’s world. It seems like not a month goes by that there is not a story in the news about a bullied student who takes revenge upon other students in a violent way. Likewise, peer pressure is also an issue in schools from time immemorial. Peer groups are very important to students - peer groups are the way that the students construct their social identity, and, once students try to break away and gain some independence from their parents, the peers become even more important to them. Peer...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Peer pressure on children

...? How to Reduce the Impact of Negative Peer Pressure on Children? How to Reduce the Impact of Negative Peer Pressure on Children?Introduction Peer pressures influence the way we behave in order to fit in our community. Peer pressure occurs when someone does something they do not want to do due to the influence of their peers (Zolten and Long, P. 1). Peer pressure can be negative or positive and can affect adults, teenagers as well as children. However, children and teenagers are mostly affected by the negative peer...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Peer Pressure

...Peer Pressure: Seeking Support or Just Going Along With the Crowd The process of socialization from childhood through adulthood is marked by a considerable phase of trial, experimentation, rejection, and acceptance as the path through adolescence becomes directed by peer pressure. Peer pressure is usually thought of as a force that groups apply to teenagers in an effort to persuade them to try something that they may be adverse to, that is socially taboo, or act in a deviant manner. For the teenager, the stakes are high, as it could mean group acceptance or group rejection. Within the group, a failure to succumb to peer...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Peer Pressure on Teenagers

...Introduction In the present environment of fierce competition, informal social control has become a major concern that adversely impacts the psyche of children, especially the teenagers. Peer pressure, during the adolescence and youth has also become a strong reason to rebel against the social control. The recent rise in drug offences, unlawful activities like burglary, thefts, violence etc. among the youth can be contributed to a large extent to the peer pressure and contemporary cinema. Fashion and fast paced lifestyle are few other factors that are attractive for the youth. Indeed, peer pressure is closely linked to human behavior that...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Peer pressure

...Running Head: Peer Pressure Peer Pressure Inserts His/her Introduction The dangerous consequences of peer pressure haveforced researchers to try finding the insights on the subject. Psychology has informed us about the dangers of environment and how susceptible human mind is. The fact that we give in to any form of perceived authority or pressure can have disastrous consequences on human life. Researches on peer pressure has elucidated upon how easily people can succumb to pressure and can act without thinking rationally about it. Peer...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Peer pressure

...Peer Pressure Introduction Peer pressure is perceived as a major cause of unusual behavior among many young people. The term is used to suggest that many people, including teenagers, may behave in ways that go against their belief or values because of the fear of being rejected by their peers. Peer pressure demands that a person conforms to group norms and demonstrate his or her commitment and loyalty to other group members. This can be the pressure from their friends or those who are close whom they interact with in their daily life. In this process of peer influence, friends adapt to...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Peer pressure for FREE!

Contact Us