The factors that derive the academic procrastination are self-regulation, fears, anxieties, unique time and task perceptions (Badri, Sabouri, and Norzad, 76-82).
Operational definitions of procrastination: It is defined by four different authors in this research study.• Academic procrastination is thinking associated to the emotional intelligence, a person’s capability to understand, feel, administer, and guide his/her own or others’ emotions (Senécal, Koestner, and Vallerand, 607-619).
• Bar-On explains academic procrastination in five main branches which are as follow: adaptation, interpersonal, intrapersonal, general mood, and coping with stress (Badri, Sabouri, and Norzad, 76-82).• Academic procrastination is defined as a reflection of daily postponement to college life by means to delay obligations and tasks that are assigned related to the college or to save them until the end time (Haycock, McCarthy, & Skay, 317-324). • Procrastination behavior takes place when the students do not finish the given task or assignments and indulge in purposefully postponing the exam preparations (Thomas and Gadbois, 101-119). A note on operational definitions:
The academic procrastination is the term derived from the original concept of procrastination that means delay and postponement of any task or responsibility in any given assignment is known as procrastination.. In the designed context the academic procrastination is defined by several authors but the concept of every author is revolving around
the concept of procrastination and deriving the almost same thought and conclusion. If the discussion made on the operational definition of Goleman, the author interpret the term as thoughts of the person associated with its emotional feelings and understandings of its own behavior and the others behavior. It further elaborate as the person behavior towards completing the task is the reflection of its own intentions and dedication about the given work. The intentions of the person derive its behavior. According to the operational definition of Bar-on, the approach of academic procrastination is divided in five main branches as discussed above. With combining all the branches the author made a perception that an attitude and thinking along with the approach of a student derive its mood regarding any assigned project. Its interest in assigned job will stimulate its skills to perform the duty with preference. According to the (Haycock, McCarthy, & Skay, 317-324) the operational definition of academic procrastination is the delay of completing the college assignments by the students that are assigned to them but they refuse to perform by giving preference because of the lack of interest. In the book of (Thomas and Gadbois, 101-119) the operational definition of academic procrastination is almost same as the different author, defined as the perception and interest of a student shape its behavior regarding the completion of work or delaying the preparation of the examination till end time comes.
A note on the Measurement strategy: A measurement strategy can be explained as when the operational definition is specified in the research study, the understanding is developed in a way that the measurement will be understandable for others. Cronbach and Meehl (281-302) indicate, though, it is uncommon for a researcher to believe in the operational definition as the only and best description of the structure that is being considered. Let’s take an example to find the same word’s meaning in the different contexts. If the thirst is define operationally in human, it can be defined as “the amount of time since last sip of water”, it can also be defined with another perception that the thirst is the amount of energy that the person will expend to search the water. This diversity of sense shows such an significant point that Cronbach and Meehl (281-302) propose that they want to be concerned regarding a particular kind of validity they prefer to as construct validity. The main thing is that how valid is the derived conclusion of the construct or in other words it is the most suitable approach to measure then construct along with drawing the conclusion. Let’s take an example to understand more clearly, one should inquire whether an exacting measure such as dropping an apple gives the perception or idea for making the thought of the presence of gravity on earth. Similarly in the example of Academic procrastination any one should inquire that the particular measure which is used to construct the perception of academic procrastination allows creating the valid supposition about the construct of the designed theory.