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The Muslim Empires - Essay Example

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Sultan Murad expanded the Ottoman Empire through the use of Janissaries (former Christians who were recruited as foot soldiers and administrators and loyal to the sultan) and…
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The Muslim Empires
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The Muslim Empires

Download file to see previous pages... Emperor Selim annexed Syria, then Cairo, before calling himself the new caliph, Muhammad’s successor. The Ottomans also conquered North Africa. From 1521 onwards, under Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottomans advanced to Belgrade, Hungray, Austria, and Vienna. The Ottoman Empire lasted until the eighteenth century, but was challenged by the growing Austrian Empire in Southeastern Europe and Russia in the north.
The government of the Ottoman sultan administered a diverse population through appointing pashas who managed new territories through collecting taxes, paying a fixed percentage as tribute to the central government, and preserving peace and order. The bey refers to the chieftain or tribal leader and who served as pashas too. Tribal disputes were resolved through tribal law, while Islamic law was secondary. In addition, the sultan ruled through an imperial council, which met four days a week and where the grand vizier served as the chairman. Ottoman rule was more localized than those applied in Europe and Asia. The Ottomans declined by the seventeenth century due to various reasons, including Suleyman’s execution of two capable sons and increasing social unrest (due to corruption and economic difficulties).
The Safavid dynasty began with Shah Ismail. Ismail conquered Iran and Iraq in 1501. The Safavids attained the peak of their ruling under Shah Abbas. Furthermore, they ruled a mixed-race and mixed-religion Persia. They used Shi’ism as the unifying force. Their empire disintegrated in 1723 due to succession conflicts and attacks from the Ottomans. The shah was like the sultan who claimed divine quality. Furthermore, the Safavid appointed people to senior management positions by merit than birth. The Safavid shah was also like the Ottoman sultan who traveled regularly to the city to check his subordinates for moral or religious transgressions.
Babur established the Mughal dynasty. He conquered Kabul in 1504. He expanded his ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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