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GKE1 Themes in U.S. & Wrld Hist task 4 Scientific and technological advancements have had substantial, persistent effects on the world, especially on the resources that people use to satisfy their daily needs. The effects include changes to the economic r - Essay Example

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Households which depended solely on the farms for food and other living products started depending on commercial establishments and new tools which made their jobs easier…
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GKE1 Themes in U.S. & Wrld Hist task 4 Scientific and technological advancements have had substantial, persistent effects on the world, especially on the resources that people use to satisfy their daily needs. The effects include changes to the economic r
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Extract of sample "GKE1 Themes in U.S. & Wrld Hist task 4 Scientific and technological advancements have had substantial, persistent effects on the world, especially on the resources that people use to satisfy their daily needs. The effects include changes to the economic r"

Industrial Revolution and its Consequences A. The first industrial revolution which lasted from 1780 to 1850 created two major social consequences. It changed the basic structure of the economy, greatly reducing the dependence on agriculture for survival. Households which depended solely on the farms for food and other living products started depending on commercial establishments and new tools which made their jobs easier (Hobsbawm, 1972) . The agrarian sector which was the major contributor to a nation’s economy dwindled paving way for factories and large scale industries to become the key economical powers.
The second major impact is urbanization. People started to move in hoards towards the cities as the wage providing factories were largely based around them. This led to creation of large scale slums as well as change in change in the family system. Working men and women started to live alone for the first time in history without their families. Rural men came to work in factories while rural women migrated in huge numbers to the cities as domestic helps (Tilly & Scott, 1987).
B. The first industrial revolution created new forms of investment. It made the merchants emphasis more on manufacturing than ever. A swarm of inventors sprung to action creating huge machineries replacing the labor force in the factories. This led to uncontrolled capitalism. The labors were forced to work without questioning because of the fear of replacement. This phase of industrial revolution can be referred to as mechanical revolution (Fischer& Hackett, 1996). The merchants became much more profit oriented than ever during this period.
C. The industrial revolution which started in the late 18th century can be classified into three phases.
Phase 1 – From 1780 to 1820 with Britain as its headquarters
Phase 2 - From to 1840 to 1870 where the industrial revolution spread to France, Germany and the U.S.A.
Phase 3 – From 1890 to 1914 when the revolution spread as far as Russia and Japan (Trebilcock, 1981).
The first generation workers in the phase accepted ruthless capitalism. Their demand grew during the second phase. The workers were ready to compensate their demands and rights for high wages. This trend started by the US workers spread quickly to the other parts of the world. Any incongruence was met with contempt by the workers itself. As E.P. Thompson (1991) mentioned “the working class made itself as much as it was made”. The third phase workers mainly easterners were the first to demand basic rights as well as fair pay sowing the seeds of communism for the first time.
Excessive growth in the manufacturing sector paved way for huge factories involving thousands of workers. The talent of the workers became a resource to the company. The competitors tried to lure skilled labor with more salary. Their inevitability made the worker community revolt against the management and negotiates for their basic rights as well as good pay introducing communism. One such first recorded upraising was the 1831 first Canut Revolt in France and the most famous one is the Revolution of 1905 in Russia which created the Saint Petersburg Soviet or workers council the forerunner for most communist revolutions.
Differences between Capitalism and Communism
1. The west continued to retain the phase 2 industrial revolution mind set securing their capitalist motives. Capitalist merchants still give importance only to profit. They do it in an inveigling way luring the workers with money. Profit is the determining factor in capitalism. The eastern countries like Russia demanded the workers be given full rights as they are the basic unit of the factories income. The government controlled the capitalists looking upon them as a source giving employment to the workers. The workers welfare is the key factor in communism.
Capitalist countries give importance to surplus production and constant expansion as they need new markets to buy their products. So they even gave and give more facilities to the workers than the communist environment to retain their talent. Communist countries lack behind in continuous expansion. They retain the workers by giving a decent life style and guaranteeing job security to them. Stringent rules restricted expansion and earning more profits making the workers stay in a secure environment with little growth and facilities (Fischer & Hackett, 1996).
2. The resources and production entirely lies with the private owner or the investors in capitalism. The profit is also shared only among them. The perks they give to the workers is included in the manufacturing cost and regained through cost fixation of the product. In communism, the resources and the profit are common to the working class. There is no private owner. The society in common is the benefactor of the profit. The production is entirely controlled by the worker unions as there is no particular major investor. This allows gives them the freedom to manufacture high quality products at an affordable cost. But, since the competition is low, innovation and vigor to make their products better than other companies is not widely evident.
References
1. Fischer & Hackett, D. (1996). The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History. New York: Oxford University Press
2. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1972). Industry and Empire. London: Penguin
3. Thompson, E. P. (1991). The Making of the English Working Class. Toronto: Penguin Books
4. Trebilcock, C. (1981). The industrialization of the continental powers, 1780-1914. Longman
5. Tilly, A. L & Scott, W. J. (1987). Women, Work, and Family. Psychology Press Read More
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