It means a one-person rule without assistants (Gause 90). The rule involves application of aristocracy, and there is no freedom. Istibdad is the Arabic term for monarchy. It is a form of political despotism…
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Religious constitutions are important to these leaders because they act as their guidance. They view themselves as leaders chosen by God.
Monarchy could relate its way of leadership to the supreme authority. The leadership is hereditary and remains within the family. The family members are the top organ of the country. These two types of monarchy still exist but differ in their structure. The Arabs drew a common definition to balance this Monarchies. A situation like this could use the word ‘Malik’ to balance. People say; king and Malik is both equal, and they are both important (Gause 96).
Arabs have evidence on their royal titles. A person could trace the background of the title by studying the evidence, example, studying the coins (Gause 95). In ancient Arab, people did not like the Kings. Arabs did not want any form of central government. Liqah is the word used to describe people who abide by every rule of the king.
Islam draws their hate of kings from the bible. They give the example of the monarchy of Israel, in the book of Hebrews. The case is not the same for all Kings. The Quran depicts David and Solomon as good kings. The only difference of determining which kingdom is good is when one contrasts kingdoms with caliph and caliphate (Gause 79).
Malik depicted military leaders. Their authority was secular, where religion had no place (Gause 90). The rule had no laws from the ruler, but rather use of personal thoughts. King, as a title, was improved in terms of imperialism. After improvements, the name king improves and becomes sultan or Persian. Pedishabs self-declare themselves as emperors. They make their own rights and rules. Examples of padishans are the sultan of Turkey and Shah of Persia. The considers them great (Gause 95).
Kings were coordinators of the Padishans. The title of king became so small and less influential in Muslim countries. Foreign leaders in the country were kings. Harun al-Rashid was a
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