Describe and compare - Essay Example

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This work is more about civilization in different regions like Europe, America, Africa, Japan and China. The work will compare and contrast…
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Civilization Civilization is the process through which human abandons the traditional way of life then adopts the modern or advanced way of living. This work is more about civilization in different regions like Europe, America, Africa, Japan and China. The work will compare and contrast demographic, political, economic and social life before and after civilization.
Question 1
Europe in 1500 was characterized by rural life with agriculture as the main economic activity. Men and women used horses and oxen to toil their farms. Houses were made of thatches and wood. The population was sparse with less than a hundred families per village. Peasants were the majority and a time was forced to labor or work in military camps by the aristocracy. Much of their wages went to taxes, rent as well as tithes. The towns were more trade/market oriented than the rural set up; however, labor was rewarded by goods just as in the rural areas. Women engaged in mid-wifery and prostitution to raise a living both in small and large towns. Civilization in Europe came with a lot of changes in both rural and urban areas. Population grew due to better health care, diet and general way of life. Majority of people, more so men migrated from rural to urban areas seeking for better paying jobs and the enticement associated with city life. Tarmac roads were constructed to transport agricultural among other raw materials from rural areas to towns or cities.
Question 2
America in the 16th century had stratified population with majority of the family settled along the road. Households were within community structures organized by lords who were the mediators of major cases. Men could spent much of their time in social places like bars while women were majorly engaged in domestic and church related chores. Wheat, corns and pastoral farming were the main economic activities. Trade was conducted along major streets and roads, where one would bring his/her farm produce and exchange it with whatever he/she lacked. Communication was majorly through scrolls and messengers among others. Civilization compelled men to leave their farms and seek employment in construction farms. The major streets were occupied by industrialists and contractors and they become major towns as civilization swept the region (Ferguson, 109). However, civilization in America had some disadvantages, for instance slavery was rampant, crime evolved and environmental pollution was common in industrialized areas.
Question 3
Africa’s population was far much lower than that of Europe and America in the 16th century. Africans settled in villages that were far from each other. Both men and women had garments made of animals’ skin. The main economic activities were hunting, fruit gathering and bird hunting among others. They used Stone Age tools that were majorly made of wood and stones. The communities were ruled by kings and chiefs who settled most family and community disputes. Horses, donkeys and walking were the main means of transport, while information was passed through smoke, drums, messengers and horn blowing among others. Barter trade was conducted in major parts of the continent. Civilization began when European missionaries visited the continent. Schools and churches were established and roads constructed. The communities were subdivided into much less unit called villages, which were ruled by chiefs or kings. Africans learnt foreign languages like French, English, German and Portuguese depending on the colonies.
Question 4
Civilization in Japan and China had some similarities and differences. Native Chinese were naive to abandon their traditional way of life and adopt the European culture. A war broke between the Native Chinese who embraced the Europe life and those who rejected it, however, the civilized group won due to their superior weapons, mainly guns. Japan on the other hand embraced civilization with lot of zeal; they appreciated the fact that the only way to improve life was through accepting such changes. The common point between the countries’ civilization was that both countries improved its infrastructure, health care, Education and trade among others. Civilization however led to pollution of water and air, erosion of the traditional culture, rise in crime and prostitution in urban areas among others.
Question 5
The onset of civilization in Southern Asia in the period of ca. 1500 was instigated by the Islamic religion. The traditional Islam civilizations were very effective at the time. It should be noted that that the communities in the area were traditionally nomadic pastoralists. The empires were transformed from camel and goat nomads to sedentary agriculture. The community that emerged as the strongest Islamic empire was the Bedouin. Life at the time was charcatrized by clan identity as well as Arab conquests. The renown empires were the Sasanian in Persia together with the Byzantine empire. In the case of military strength, Persia was weak. They both had succession issues.
Work Cited
Ferguson, N. Civilization: The West and the Rest. USA: Pearson, 2007.print Read More
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