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The first source of information for hypothesis generation in any outbreak is case-patients group which will provide valuable information on the "potential sources of exposure" (Meijia, 2006). In case the case-patient is unavailable, family member or friend must be interviewed. In case, the case-patient is a child, or guardian must be interviewed. Based on the size of the outbreak, about 8-10 cases of different demographic characteristics must be selected for the interview. Preferred are those cases which have occurred during the middle of the outbreak and those with typical case presentations. However, it is important to remember that even unusual cases may provide important clues. The following questions may be asked (Meijia, 2006):
4. Given your knowledge about E. coli O157:H7, the descriptive epidemiology of the initial cases, and the results of hypothesis-generating interviews, outline the information available at this point on the source of the outbreak and mode of transmission.
The source of outbreak has been attributed to alfalfa sprouts and lettuce. Thus the possible sources of contamination are deer feces, cattle manure and irrigation water. The mode of transmission is
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Crude death rate is calculated simply by dividing the total number of deaths in the area of concern by the total population in the area. However valid comparisons of death from these data to determine the health of a population can be made only when factors affecting the risk of death are given due consideration.
According to the Center for Research and Epidemiology of Disasters, the country actually tops the world's most disaster prone country in the period 1900-1991 with almost 8 disasters per year. (World Bank Institute Distance Learning, 2006d)
Contemporary Philippine politics is characterized by partisan power play where attempts to overthrow those in power is recurring.
Terrorism has its origin traced back to the beginning of human civilization. Holy Bible says; Adam’s elder son killed his younger brother simply because of jealousy. This can be considered as the beginning of terrorism. Terrorist attack may result in
To prevent further damages, physical and psychological, caused by bioterrorism attacks, epidemiologic actions should be implemented. The first and most basic is the focus of this paper, clinical observations.
Bioterrorism has posed infinitive attacks within the past
Thus Odds ratio has a major role to play in descriptive statistics. The value can be estimated using non-random samples. It is also useful for case-control study as against relative risk which is useful in cohort study. In the case under study, the Odds ratio for
This can lead to undesirable psychological, social and health problems when healthy individuals are misdiagnosed as HIV infected.
When the OD ratio cutoff for tested positive is shifted from A to C the test become highly specific and nearly all the
By what percentage would this change your answer? Would this percentage be smaller, larger or the same if someone started with a shorter list?
If each person added an extra contact than total number of all the contacts in all
Diversity could be based on age nationality, gender or culture (Friedman, 2012). On the other hand, multicultural teamwork refers to hiring of workers from different civilizations or nationalities (Shipman, 2007). Having workers from diversified background
d to them by the distance, as a result not for all time supporting useful coordination and collaboration, visibility, communication and mutual cooperation to take place. In this way, the successful implementation and management of diverse teams is ensured in a different way from