Failed States and Effective Division of Labor Strategy in the Future Post-Conflict Reconstruction Projects - Assignment Example

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The author of the paper gives a detailed information about failed or failing states which have a lack legitimate democratic governments and describes the effective division of labor strategy in the future post-conflict reconstruction projects…
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Failed States and Effective Division of Labor Strategy in the Future Post-Conflict Reconstruction Projects
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1. Failed or Failing States
Failing or failed states are those states that lack legitimate democratic governments, do not have the political will and the military power capable of protecting its territory, and do not have the economic power to sustain its citizens. These weaknesses are mostly caused by religious, racial, and ethnic conflicts (Lecture notes, 2011). There are several indicators (or characteristics) of failing or failed states.
Failed states lack democratic legitimate governments leading to foreign intervention, illegal groups, and high level of refugees, economic decline, and failure by the government to provide the necessary basic services, inequality, violation of human rights and brain drain. Somalia, a country rated as number one failed state in the world, is either controlled by foreign military or by the Al-Shabab militia. Warships from several countries patrol the waters of Somalia to curb the pirates (Kaplan, 2010). It is estimated that about 2 million people have fled Somalia and sought asylum elsewhere (Foreign Policy, 2010). This has also been seen in Afghanistan where the Taliban and foreign troops have more control of the country.
Failing or failed states experience economic decline, this is the case in Zimbabwe and North Korea where tyrannical regimes have stolen money from their economies leaving their markets on a verge of collapse. This has led to inequality with few elites benefiting from the national resources while the majority remains poor. This has also been witnessed in Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan. In Niger, a country also rated as a failing state, the government cannot provide vital services such as healthcare and education leading to a high illiteracy rate and high infant mortality rates. Zimbabwe has experienced a high rate of brain drain and it is estimated that one out five Zimbabweans has left the country in such of greener pastures.
Failed states have also experienced a high rate of human rights deprivation as is the case with Sudan where brutality has been employed to subdue rebelling regions. This has led the president to be indicted for war crimes (Foreign Policy, 2010).
2. Effective Division of Labor Strategy in the Future Post-Conflict Reconstruction Projects
Division of labor among states, international institutions, and non-governmental organizations should follow the following guidelines to ensure that they are effective in the context of future post-conflict reconstruction projects.
Leadership roles should be left for the people of that country. The international community should just come in to provide assistance in solving the problems of that country. This aids in avoiding misconception that the international community is coming in to colonize the country in question.
The local performers, their vested interests, and the leadership available, should all be driven towards how international players can utilize their resources to the maximum in order to ensure bringing about a legitimate government, empower key leaders and isolate those who do not support reconstruction.
The security issues must be addressed from the initial stages, proper security is a key component to reconstruction process after a conflict. However, security undertakings should not undermine the efforts in having justice and reconciling major players in the conflict, economic and social well being, or participation and governance.
Donors and international players must develop a plan that ensures that planning, coordination and execution of operations is carried out in a unified manner. Lack of a coherent approach and competing among outside players can bring down the concerned government and its entire society and further aggravate the situation.
Military or civilian operations must be devolved from far capitals; they should be based in the home country to avoid failure of the process. Basing military or civilian operation in far capitals can lead to resistance.
The operation should be done in phases and following a particular sequence. The sequence that is chosen should note areas where success can come early; force can be built and consequently maintained.
The international community should develop a strategy with a realistic time period and avoid taking shortcuts in order to achieve reconstruction early (Hamre and Sullivan, 2002).
Foreign Policy (2010). Failed States and the Bad Guys Who Keep Them That Way. Foreign Policy 180 (2010): 74+. Global Issues in Context.
Hamre, J. and Sullivan, G. (2002). Toward Post-conflict Reconstruction. The Washington Quarterly
Kaplan, S. (2010). Rethinking State-building in a Failed State. The Washington Quarterly
Lecture notes (2011). Seminar #5: Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in the International System & Week #3—Post-Conflict Reconstruction: An Examination of Relevant Approaches and Theories Read More
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