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Economic, Social, and Political Change Worksheet - Essay Example

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It expresses the three major causes that led to agricultural revolution; shift from subsistence to commercial farming, open fields systems and temperate climatic condition. It also describes the change in…
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Economic, Social, and Political Change Worksheet al Affiliation The paper explains a number of issues in the of western revolution. It expresses the three major causes that led to agricultural revolution; shift from subsistence to commercial farming, open fields systems and temperate climatic condition. It also describes the change in society population by example. The industrial revolution stimulators, mechanization, population growth and trade as well as the working conditions of the people in the factories and mines are explained. It explains the western social change in romanticism and realism, from a world of imagination and enlightenment into practice, women roles and possible drift in science belief between 1815, and 1914. Changes in western politics are incorporated, that spread across the region through interaction in liberalism and community manifestos despite the repression by conservatives and the venture of political struggle and realpolitiks.
Keywords: Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Agricultural Revolution, Western Society, Liberals, Church, Conservatives, Population, Culture, Realism, Mechanization, Politics, Industry.
Following a shift from subsistence to commercial farming, in the beginning of the 16th century, there was improvement in livestock management, as well as introduction new rotations, which paved in a way for more production from traditional to modern practices in Agriculture (Bayliss-Smith &Wanmali, 1984). The earlier open field systems had laid the foundation for the farming shift in Europe, though it was later replaced by enclosed fields and more compact farms, it was part of basis in revolution. Most part of Northern and Eastern Europe experienced temperate climatic conditions, apart from the leveled plains and hills that could contain deeper soils to support Agricultural revolution.
The society saw a great change in population growth following the massive production of food. The mortality rate was high with the entire population increasing at a higher rate than food production. “In 1800, Europe had about 190 million people; by 1850, 250 million. By 1914, it had 460 million” (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob, & Laue, 2009, p. 501).
The industrial revolution was initially attributed to the population growth in society which provided adequate labor force to produce enough resources from agriculture, to industries for processing and manufacturing. Mechanization also played its role, allowing the introduction of machineries, and more advanced equipments for use in factories and farming; the steam engines were invented to pump water from the mines. Trade intensified following demand of food and other products from the population, which forced industrial revolution in the region and other parts of the world.
Between 1800 and 1850, employees consisted of both adults and children who were overworked and at times denied their rights of salaries and time for oneself. The working environment was harsh and unhealthy; with too much heat in the factories and the coal mines besides children exploitation and jobs insecurity. According to Duiker and Spielvogel, mine workers feared for dangerous cave-ins, explosions, and gas fumes, which were a way of life, while industrial workers had to put up with, from 12 to 16 hours a day range of work shifts, ½ an hour for dinner and lunch breaks, no minimum wage and employment security while weakening temperatures in the cotton mills (2008).
Romanticism in 18th century had a big influence in the artistic platform, affecting performance in drama, arts and musical concerts. With time, its impact was felt in politics and later on, expressing people voices and cries in the society while prompting people to think differently. As of early 19th century, it evolved with the help of technology then, into film sound tracks that marked the century.
Realism was confined to the simple, and humble in society who were supposedly thought to be living in a world of fantasy and imagination that would not take cultural nationalism into effect. The desire for cultural recognition became the trend in society making even the high rank officials to appreciate the cultural ideology.
Science in 18th century was credited to materialism and disbelief. Later on, in 19th century advanced stands expressed that, energy could be saved, mechanical equivalence of heat could be confirmed, cell theory associated with establishment of disease existent (Barzun, n. d .). The doubt was removed with progression in research in genes and cells.
The role of women had revolved around family care in homes, revolution introduced women into industrial work as they abandoned household jobs earn money in industrial jobs. Men in industry could now perform the former women tasks, like sewing, spinning and weaving in the textile factories (Shoebottom, 1996- 2012). Through industrial revolution, any goods produced by women in the society were no more as factories took their place in production.
Liberalism started in Europe, spread in US then Australia to the rest of the world. It is associated to between 1815 and 1914 period of development and democracy in the west. The conservative people repressed any action by liberals since they feared impact of revolution that would embrace equality and freedom of people in the society
Conservatism by the western society was associated with vest interest so as to maintain traditional political institutions that would protect their interest in social, economic and religious stands in future. They disregarded any opposition and suppressed any movement by the uprising liberals though later had to adopt their stand since they were the minority.
Kulturekampf refers to the concept of political hardship in the event of struggle for Catholic Church to achieve self governance and rights. Competition was high before 1878 after which it began to dissolve due to existing diverse groups apart from the government. Liberals, conservatives, church clergy and the catholic faith believers increased to put pressure on the government.
The Communist Manifesto refers to a collective belief, a perception of society that community should own major resources and means of production instead of the individuals in the community (Bond, 2001). A belief that led to development of movements in political, industrial and religious grounds as a way to bring equality in the societies.
Realpolitik meant “politics of adaptation to existing facts, pursuing plain objects, admitting no obligation to ideals” (Shoebottom, 1996- 2012). It reflected a science based on historical law, and emphasized on achieving trust in society’s dealings with economic environment, away from imaginative world of earlier socialism.
Reference List
Bayliss-Smith, T., & Wanmali, S. (Eds.). (1984). Understanding Green Revolutions: Agrarian Change and Development Planning in South Asia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, M. C., Jacob, J. R., Laue, V. (2009). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt publishing company.
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J. J. (2008). The Essential World History. Belmont: Thompson Wads worth.
Barzun, J. (n. d.). History of the world. All- history. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://all-history.org/europe8.html
Shoebottom, P. (1996- 2012).World history pages: 618-635: Northern Transatlantic Economy and Society 1815-1914. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://esl.fis.edu/learners/support/hum/text/wh619.htm
Bond, P. (2001). Knowledge without wisdom. Freeurantia. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.freeurantia.org/Knowledge.htm Read More
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