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In each of these types of governance, he gives the sound and the bad. According to Aristotle, the philosopher king is the ideal governance. In this form, the kings’ interest is in the welfare of his people (Tacitus & Benario 18).
The highest form of governance is the monarchy. It is hereditary in nature, and people can associate freely with the royal family. In a monarchy, the interests of the nation take priority above all other matters. When the respectable leadership of a monarchy becomes rogue, Aristotle terms it as tyranny. When leadership becomes self seeking the citizens of this state, suffers thus; cannot achieve happiness (Chuska 277).
Aristotle considers aristocracy of philosophers to be the second best leadership. When this form of leadership gets crooked, it becomes oligarchy. Further, he views democracy as the worst form of leadership. In his opinion, the third best form of leadership is one whose polity would combine all the noble forms of leadership. According to Aristotle, a polity is a constitution. Aristotle is of the opinion that, for a polity to be viable, it has to consider the stability and security of its people.
The aristocracy as Aristotle puts it is the rule of several. When a virtuous rule of law prevails the society enjoys solidity. In this rule, the needs of the wealthy get priority while the rest of the population gets neglected. This brings about class division, and discrimination on the basis of riches. The elite in the society protect and guard their status making it difficult to join the elite group from low class people. According to Aristotle, who was advocating for fairness, elitism in the society is wrong (Chuska 278).
Polity is the rule of the majority. This is what Aristotle refers to as the rule of many. In the better form, it concerns with the needy. The leaders take office through an election. It is the citizens of the state who decide the person
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Examples of moral virtues are humility, truthfulness, moderation, and generosity. On the other hand, intellectual virtues are those personality traits that are required for correct thinking and desired action. He classified intellectual virtues as productive such as craft knowledge, theoretical such as wisdom and mind and lastly practical such as practical prudence.
The primary concept is based on the idea that the middle class is the focus of the concept of justice providing for this social class also being the center of the development of the constitution. Through the middle class, the ideas of justice are lined to the idea of constitutions and the development of the polity becomes founded upon ideals that are focused on the justice that serves the greatest numbers of people.
In his ethics, Aristotle follows Plato and Socrates in emphasizing the importance of virtues in human life. Just like Plato, Aristotle accepts ethical virtues such as courage, justice, and temperance as intricate rational, social, and emotional skills. However, he opposes Plato’s notion that training in metaphysics and sciences is necessary condition for full comprehension or understanding of human good.
These include the number of rulers such as one, few or many as well as the nature of the political regime, namely, good or corrupt. As a result, six different types of empires were developed – including monarchy, aristocracy and polis – that are considered good types of government.
Yet to the degree that the style of the Constitution may seem plain and direct it is manifestly written for a formal audience to be constitutional, while the thought is definitely characteristic of Aristotle's political philosophy. Moreover, it is clear from every indication of historical antiquity that Aristotle's contemporaries in the ancient world accepted his authorship of the Constitution.
(Critical Theory at a Crossroad: Adorno, Marcuse, and the Radical Sixties) Though Marx believed in the increasing development of history, and also in the unavoidable ruin of capitalism, he believed that by the destroying the support of capitalism he would be able to hurry the total fall of capitalism and thus bring forth a socialist era.
The central notion in Aristotle's ethics is the good life. Everything that people do, and everything that happens to them, is of ethical significance, as Aristotle conceives of ethics, insofar as it helps or hinders or is part of the good life. An act or occurrence may matter ethically even if it is involuntary; it will not then deserve praise or blame, but it may affect the value of life.
In his Politics, Aristotle differentiated rule by the many (democracy/ polity), with rule by the few (oligarchy/aristocracy), and with rule by a one person (tyranny/ monarchy or today autocracy). He also thought that there was a good and a bad form of each
The philosophy of Aristotle’s responsibility has been discussed since time in memorial. Aristotle’s view on responsibility and his main objection were made in 1114 B. His view on responsibility gives a definition of what is thought to be responsible. He argues that people are responsible for the actions they involve themselves in, both voluntary and involuntary.