Policy making - Essay Example

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Therefore, people need to gather basic information from social sciences, humanities and natural sciences to understand the principles behind sustainable development, their implementation, their…
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Policy making
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Ethanol Question Sustainable development in the world comprises economics, society and environment. Therefore, peopleneed to gather basic information from social sciences, humanities and natural sciences to understand the principles behind sustainable development, their implementation, their values and how to ramify implementation. In U.S, science is partially held responsible for economic problems like fossil fuel use, social problems and ecological problems like pollution. Thus, the role of science is centered at exploring the aspects of social sciences. These controversies have been vital in resolving the environmental, national security and the economic concerns in U.S. The country has been trying to resolve and reduce use of fossil fuel. This has led to debates among leaders on invention of a renewable fuel source like ethanol.
Scientific criticism is diverse as it focuses on external instrumentalization process of science and technology in economic, political and military spheres. It also focuses on the internal academic structures where questions on social relevance that is grounded on causality and reductionism. Furthermore, solutions about the social problems are also analyzed. A scientific approach like use of ethanol is accepted if the outcomes of the process are ethical: it is less harmful as compared to other fuel sources. Hopes can be drawn to science if the values and the epistemological foundations attached are beneficial to the citizens. For instance, production of corn in U.S has increased from one third to five billion bushels between 1990 to 2010. This is an economic improvement thus earns more profit to the locals.
Question 2
Human activities such as deforestation have negatively affected production of corn. Furthermore, climatic conditions such as drought also affect corn production. Thus, ethanol production from corn is non-renewable; it means that corn production also reduces. This has directly affected the level of ethanol produced. This has led to food shortage in Mexico due to the depleted corn. Furthermore, increase in production of ethanol, leads to pollution and degrades agriculture. This has led to enforcement of environmental policies to curb production of ethanol.
In addition, ethanol production is affected by the market trend. Due to the high demand of ethanol, it has forced many ethanol users to participate in the business. This is due to the less environmental effects that ethanol has to the environment. It is also estimated that the price of gasoline is about $0.9 per gallon due to the presence of ethanol. Due to the low prices, ethanol has risen in the recent years in U.S.
Question 3
Science in the modern society is very vital in addressing issues such as global climatic change. Therefore, politics and social science should put forward some policies that govern ethanol production and usage in U.S. in transporting ethanol, the government should build a pipeline to link the two areas. This will reduce accidents and air pollution. However, the cost incurred in connecting pipeline is very costly.
In addition, the government should also put out measures to control exportation and importation of ethanol. PADD 2 region has improved drastically in ethanol production from 1.6 billion gallons that were produced in 2000 as compared to 12.5 billion gallons in 2010. For instance, PADD2 area is less successful as it does not benefit from the ethanol it produces. The area ships about 70% of its production and exports 1.3 million barrels of crude oil per day. This policy on importation and exportation has led to increased pollution in PADD2 area.
Work Cited
Rapier, Robert. The Midwest Should use its Own Ethanol. November 8 2010. Web. April 27, 2012 Read More
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