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Sigmund Freud was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856 in Jewish family background. His father was a freethinker while Freud was a vowed atheist. Freud is regarded as the most famous, influential, and controversial thinker in figure in psychology (PBS, 1998). Sigmund Freud has many works and theories to his credit that has helped in shaping our childhood, personality, memory, sexuality, and therapy views. Indeed, Sigmund Freud has made immense contribution to the understanding of irrationalism. Through Sigmund Freud and Charles Darwin, irrationalism began to explore subconscious and biological roots of experience. Though he did not invent the theory of consciousness, Sigmund Freud introduced the wider public to the notion of the unconscious mind. He noted that unconscious is the source of our motivations for food or sex, artist, or scientist (Boeree, 2009). He theorized the idea that forgetfulness/ repression or slips of the tongue are not accidental but a revelation of dynamic unconscious. This was an articulation of the concept of unconscious. Freud claims that human behavior relies on drives or instincts, which are the neurological representations of physical needs. He also theorized the idea that sexual drive was the most powerful shaper of a persons psychology, and that sexuality manifests itself from childhood. Indeed, he claims that young boys develop attraction to their mothers and develop hate towards the fathers and vice versa for girls. This refined the concept of the infantile sexuality. Additionally, Sigmund Freud devised innovative treatment of human dreams, actions, and cultural artifacts (Liukkonen, 2008). This innovation has significantly brought relevant input in the fields of psychology, semiotics, appreciation, anthropology, and artistic creativity (Thornton, 2010). Most of these fields seek to define irrationalism. Freud also classified anxiety that is a feeling that signals ego into realistic, moral, and neurotic anxiety.
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The aspects reflected are reason, experimentation, a belief in science, freedom of thought, and the acquisition of knowledge. He believes that government and legal coercion prevent the discovery of truth, by supporting mistaken thinking. Governments therefore may support errors, the truth supports itself.
In Freud’s book, “Totem and Taboo”, Freud postulates the ideas regarding the nucleus of primitive religion by adopting psychological concepts This research enabled Freud to form a nexus between the genres of psychology and religion. Critics have pointed out this fact as being instrumental for the rise of a phraseology called psychological reductionism in the schools of comparative religion .
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis was an Austrian neurologist. Sigmund Freud advocated the thought that unconscious conflicts, which are usually related to sex or aggression, are the main motivators of the human behavior. Freud was thus the first psychologist to bring unconscious mind on the formal platform of psychological theory.
For example, a bird was a bird to an individual in the enlightenment age, but to a modernist the bird could stand for freedom. The enlightenment movement based reality on facts, whereas the modernist based reality on
Maturity can be self-developed or self-imposed as well as developed with the help of others. When a person shows courage to demonstrate his understandings, he can be labeled as an enlightened person. In other words, a person will become enlightened when he was able to segregate between good and evil and demonstrate his learning in front of others.
Helen Walker Puner (1992) argues “Some of his earliest conclusions, once he reached while he and Breuer were still working together, are today naive” (p.81) Current understandings in clinical observations have taken a big leap over the head of this think-tank of
In this regard, this essay will highlight the significant reforms initiated by the two leaders that had great impact on the society.
To start with, Frederic II initiated significant administrative, social and economical reforms in