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This essay compares and contrasts ‘Old School’ and ‘New School’ perspectives of horizontal integration.
The old school perspectives on horizontal business integration emerged from theorists during the early part of the 20th century until the 1970s. This is contrasted with the new school forms that took on varying paradigms between the 1970s and the present day. The old school perspectives on horizontal integration largely emphasized biographical information of the participants. For instance, in the case of Rockefeller conflicting biographical perspectives on his life were considered, with one view emphasizing his contributions to social progress and innovation, and the other casting Rockefeller as a greed obsessed shark. One considers Rockefeller’s horizontal integration through Standard Oil as he systematically Within these perspectives historians such as Mathew Josephson labeled Rockefeller a ‘robber baron’ citing examples such as cheating and unfairness, as well as the diminished living conditions of many of the lower-tier workers involved in his operations. Still, other theorists herald these actions as cutting edge entrepreneurship.
Andrew Carnegie was another prominent individual examined by the old school and new school perspectives on industrialization. Similar to old school perspectives on Rockefeller, old school perspectives divide Carnegie’s horizontal integration through his Carnegie Steel Company along critical progressive lines and that heralded him as an industrial statesman. Individuals such as Harold Livesay, writing in an old school perspective, considered him a ‘master moneyman’ for his financing capabilities. He is also heralded for revolutionizing internal business elements and only engaging in horizontal integration when necessary. New school approaches consider corporate this organizational structure and management strategy. Prominently articulated by Alfred Chandler, this ‘Chandlerian new school
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Let us begin by analysing and comparing the
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