Athens enjoys a very long history among the cities whole Europe and in the world. It became the capital of the independent Greek State in 19th century. The city had experienced many ups and downs and during the medieval period it experienced a decline and then again started rising under the Byzantine Empire, the city also benefitted from Italian trade.The Early Modern Athens era can be associated and described with the Ottoman Athens . In 1458, Athens was under the Ottoman empire and Sultan Mehmet II the conqueror was ruling the empire. Athens was a provincial town and it has fluctuating fortunes. By 600 BC the city due to barbarian raids was invaded by the Avars and Slavs and lost its former self. Empress Irene of Athens, a native Athenian, was one of the remarkable figure of this period. In the mid of the seventh century Greece was ruined by Slavic people from north and the future of Athens was dark and seemed miserable. By the end of the ninth century Greece was re -conquered and other cities expanded because of it and s does Athens. "The invasions of the Turks after the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the ensuing civil wars largely passed the region by, and Athens continued its provincial existence unharmed" . Later the Byzantine empire was rescued with the efficiency of leadership of three Komnenos emperors Alexios, John and Manuel, Attica and because of them the whole Greece prospered.