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Contradictions to the ideology are liberalism, democracy, conservatism, individualism and capitalism and criticism against the state is forbidden. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini are two of the most infamous fascist leaders of the twentieth century, but did their leaderships also embrace totalitarianism
Hitler and Mussolini were dictators; they governed without the consent of the people. A dictatorship is the foundation of the governing power and totalitarianism relates to the scope of the power of those who govern, most dictatorships tend to be totalitarian as if the power does not come directly from the people as it does in a democracy then the scope of power has no limits and therefore all aspects of life can be controlled. Fascism is juxtaposed with totalitarianism in this sense as the subordination of citizens advances the states interests of total control.
Nazism and Fascism arose form right wing extremism and can be distinguished from left wing totalitarianism, namely communism in that right wing ideology seeks to enforce private ownership of wealth whilst left wing, namely communist totalitarianism seek to maintain collective ownership. Each strand is defined by social class. The ideology of fascism is mainly the working of the philosopher Giovanni Gentile. The emphasis was placed on the individuals need to become completely subordinate to the state.
Under Hitler’s rule many characteristics of a totalitarian state can be shown, for example there was censorship of media, removing freedom of speech enabled the government to influence public opinion via propaganda which proved a highly effective methods of control. Nazis soon realized that mass media communication was of great importance and became aware of the Medias influence over the populous. The methods of communication available in the era were used as a means to convince the masses that Hitler had overwhelming support. This effectively constitutes a totalitarian leader. The manipulation of the masses brought about hysteria and a state of belief that through carefully planned and scripted radio, broadcasts rallies and publications persuaded the public that Hitler's idea of utopia was unavoidable. Secret police in the form of the Gestapo were in place to arrest so called enemies of the state and were removed from public life to concentration camps. Genocide was the most outrageous acts of his rule, Jews across Germany's territory were slaughtered on mass scales as they did not fit in to Hitler's Utopian ideal. White supremacy was at the forefront of his thinking and Nazism continues to exist in today's society. Nazism, Fascist ideology and policies espoused and practiced by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker's Party from 1920-1945 were typical of totalitarian ideology. A Master Race to rule the world over other races was the ambition, and a violent hatred of Jews, whom Hitler blamed for all of the problems of Germany were on his agenda. Extreme nationalism was also demonstrative of totalitarian ideology. Hitler wanted to create a Master Race, uniting German speaking people into a great and singular
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Traditionally, women in Germany have always been considered inferior to men and this has been ingrained into the German laws, customs, and religions that have defined German cultures over time. Women were historically controlled by men with unmarried women and girls controlled by their fathers and then their husbands after marriage .
What Are the Main Features of Fascism as an Ideology?
The term “fascism” emerged from a Latin metaphor during the early 1920s in Italy’s radicalized political climate. From the Latin word fasces, which is a bundle of rods that represented the power of the civic magistrate in the Roman Republic, the word became a reference to political organizations built on collectivistic or even communistic philosophical premises.
The speech is rhetorical and employs techniques to stir the passions of people rather than any scientific understanding of military and diplomatic strategies. This was characteristic of the regimes that followed a fascist ideology as far as governance was concerned.
Propaganda during wartime attempts to prepare people to adjust to abnormal conditions and adapt their objectives and norms or morals to accommodate the demands of the war. In order to achieve this, propagandists use conventional visual codes such as postcards established in mass culture.
The economic growth of the first years of the new century was, however, accompanied by an increase in nationalist and imperialist sentiment, primarily among sectors of the middle classes and the intelligentsia.
The word "fascism" is traditionally associated with Germany of 1933 - 1945.
The state rulers have power over the "social, political, economic, intellectual, cultural, and spiritual activities" of the citizenry (Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia "Totalitarianism," par.1). The Britannica Online Encyclopedia also considered it as a "form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom" by directing or controlling everything and setting out individual rights and freedom of choice.
characterized by extreme racism which manifests itself in the areas of discrimination and social exclusion in the labour market, in segregation, in the housing market, in unequal opportunities in the educational system, in marked differences in general health and well-being
Both systems sprung from the influences of Socialism, focusing more on a state regulated society than a liberal one. Another common aspect is that both Nazism and Fascism grew from the frustrations that were caused by the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles
Bamberger had compared government business to the business of a cobbler who measures shoes. Bismarck argues saying that these two businesses are completely different. According to him, the main purpose if the government is to serve its citizens as well as
Germany thought that by creating this state, it would prevent more invasions but to its surprise, it lost more businessmen. This caused it more economic setbacks since most of its strongholds were already taken
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