This essay discusses that manufacturing during the pre-Civil War era was dominated by self-employed, owner-operator producers like a series of locally-centered “island economies” which was almost self-sufficient. Goods were either hand-produced or traded from local artisans such as blacksmiths, millers, tanners or shoemakers. Owners controlled the pace and rhythm of work and were bound only by their own level of energy and by local custom. They also controlled the price of their products supported by local custom. However, with the advent of the government-sponsored railroad building, the island economies of small-town America were connected to the national marketplace. The national marketplace was a contrast to the island economies in many ways. Big industrial owners gained power over manufacturing. Machines replaced manual labor and goods produced by these industrialists were cheaper and more readily available. Resistance began to build up and produced labor unions to regain a portion of their lost power and control. The two major organizing models were “industrial unions” and “trade unions.” Trade unions were more exclusive of a certain group of types of workers while industrial unions disallowed discrimination. The American Federation of Labor was a trade union that avoided politics and focused narrowly and pragmatically on only three issues: higher wages, safer conditions and shorter hours. ...
Adopted at St. Louis, July 24, 1896).
4. The White
Man's Burden is a famous poem written by Rudyard Kipling, considered Britain's imperial poet. It was said to be a response to the American take over of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. The poem speaks of a great burden to take in foreign captives who may be a threat and a real risk to the white man (Americans) with their different culture coupled with diseases and other hazards. Although the captors may profit from the act by expanding its territory and safeguarding itself from other invaders like China, the fact remains that it may be more costly than profitable. (Modern History Sourcebook: Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden, 1899 ).
5. The Boxer Rebellion is about the Boxers (The Righteous and Harmonious Fists), a religious society that rebelled against the imperial government in Shantung in 1898. They used animistic rituals and spells; they were also passionate and confident, filled with contempt for authority and violent emotions. They believed that the expulsion of foreign devils would renew Chinese society and begin a new golden age but focused only on the economic scarcity of the 1890's. The Boxer rebellion concentrated itself in Beijing. This rebellion resulted to the Boxer Protocol of 1901 where European powers got the right to maintain military forces in the capital. The Protocols suspended the civil service examination, demanded a huge remuneration to be paid to European powers for the losses they had suffered, and required government officials to be prosecuted for their role in the rebellion, and all arms imports were suspended. (The Boxer Rebellion