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The Protestant reformation - Essay Example

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Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his manifesto on the chapel door on October 31, 1517, in Wittenberg. The manifesto consisted of ninety-five theses.That day was the Feast of All Saints in which pious folk came to venerate the precious relics of His Highness the Elector, Frederick the Wise…
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Download file to see previous pages Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his manifesto on the chapel door on October 31, 1517, in Wittenberg. The manifesto consisted of ninety-five theses.That day was the Feast of All Saints in which pious folk came to venerate the precious relics of His Highness the Elector, Frederick the Wise. Valuable indulgences were gained when one venerates the relics. Luther's document was about the abuse of the granting of indulgences to the people. He stated that those preaching in favor of indulgences make a serious error when they say that these indulgences alone can grant man salvation. Luther stated that the indulgences have only one merit, which is to bring money to the church. He also attacked the theological teachings of Catholicism. He stated that true contrition means being open to doing penance for their sins. The indulgences granted by the Church remits the punishment due to sin. Luther believed in justice by faith alone without the necessity of good works. Through the grace of Jesus Christ, the soul's sins are covered by a cloak of light. Thus the one means and only hope of salvation is to entrust oneself to Christ, as it were to cling to Him.There were many causes of the Protestant Reformation. First, the moral authority of the Church in the temporal and spiritual spheres had been diminished. This development was due to the opulence and liberal ways of the Church leaders and bishops at that time.By the sixteenth century, pockets of discontent and indignation had seriously affected Christian unity in France, England,Italy and Germany. Italy and Germany. The strength of the Papacy had also weakened due to constant political differences with the different European leaders who harbored political ambitions. Difficulties and conflicts also rocked the Papacy. In 1305, a Frenchman ascended to the chair of Peter. The new pope, Clement V, settled in France. The Papacy established itself for 70 years at Avignon, France beginning in 1307. It was during this time that the Papacy had diminished in influence and in public esteem. The Popes had been seen as opulent, bureaucratic, politically-astute politicians and businessmen. Due to the shifting loyalties of its closest allies, the Papacy had also lost its independence and international character. Pope Gregory XI vigorously pursued the heretics and remained true to the faith. After Gregory XI died, a new pope Urban VI, was elected to succeed him. However, the French, who were dissatisfied,decided to elect an anti-pope. Moreover, there was a rise in anti-clericalism in Europe combined with the spread of mysticism and heresy. (Gochberg 43)
The most important cause of the Protestant Reformation was the abuse of the use of indulgences by some Catholic preachers. Some of them just wanted the money of the people and they made a business out of a holy practice. Many of the poor Catholics had felt offended and had decided to turn away from the faith. Some of these became Protestants.
2. Historians often consider to the Renaissance to be the "birth of modernity."
It was during the Renaissance that Florence used her widespread and highly organized business to extend her banking business parallel to that of her commerce. Florentine banking business controlled the credit all over Christian Europe. The wealth of Florence established the banking business in the Middle Ages. Florence had trounced all its competitors. In 1338, there were eighty Florentine firms doing frenetic banking and exchange business. The Florentines had exchanges everywhere: London, Bruges, Paris, Avignon, Majorca, Pisa, Genoa and Venice. (Greer, 50)
Renaissance represented a time for freedom for thought and culture. The Renaissance was the portal to secular humanism which emphasized of an anthropocentric perspective. In this scenario, man determines right and wrong. Secularism states that economics, society, and politics functions well without the intervention of religion. Religion, which used to dominate the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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