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Mesopotamia Civilization - Research Paper Example

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Name Instructor Course Date Mesopotamia Civilization Although unknown to many people, Mesopotamia is indeed the earliest civilization in the world, considering its historical revolutions that it had to undergo over the centuries (Algaze 26). The name Mesopotamia meant a land that was situation between two rivers…
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Download file to see previous pages Since there were seasonal rains in Mesopotamia, agriculture was initially unsustainable due to massive floods that visited the plains during the springs and summers (Mark). Due to the scarcity of rains in other times of the year only irrigation agriculture was sustainable from the rivers (Apte 81). Besides, both internal and external trade boomed in the ancient days majorly because there was scarcity of natural resources in Mesopotamia (Algaze 32). This, coupled with other civilizations that were encountered over the years, led to massive growth of the empire before its final collapse (History Guide). In this regard, this essay explores and reflects on the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia in terms of Culture, Art, and Architecture (Temples and Tombs). Essentially, the Sumerians who normally referred to their state as Sumer inhabited Mesopotamia where the first history of the world is believed to have originated (Mark). In this respect, Mesopotamia was largely composed of three states that included Sumer-Akad that lied to the north Babylonia, Sumeria, and Assyria that stretched to the extreme north. When it comes to the cities that defined Mesopotamia, the list included Babylon, Uruk, Ur Kish, Lagash, Assur, Nippur, Niniveh, Susa, Nimrud. All the states of Mesopotamia became empire but perhaps Babylon became the most famous under the rule of King Hammurabi (History Guide). This was majorly because he, together with those under his empire, formulated certain codes of laws that led to the success of the empire. A famous city in Mesopotamia that was situated 20 miles from river Tigirs was called Mashkan-shapir. The river in this city enabled the construction of canals, which were instrumental for the agrarian revolution (Algaze 37). When it comes to the various civilizations in Mesopotamia, it is worth noting that the civilizations came in three phases that ranged from the pre-civilization phase to the post-civilization phase (Annenberg Learner). Due to the seasonality of the two rivers that flowed in Mesopotamia, a vast majority of the communities that stayed there migrated to the southern part that was rich in alluvial soil (Mark). This happened in 5000 B.C. when most of the communities reside in villages that composed of 100-200 people on a permanent basis. Primarily, the southern part of Mesopotamia had soil that was more fertile despite the low rainfall levels (History Guide). As far as the history of Mesopotamia is concerned, it is understood that various periods through which the civilizations took place existed and in this sense, they were classified according to the ages (Annenberg Learner). First, there was the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age that encompassed the earliest signs of archeological settlements and wars that made the error to be referred to as the Stone Age (Algaze 26). In essence, this error came in at around 10,000 B.C. although the existence of humans is believed to have been there even much earlier (History Guide). During the Stone Age, the inhabitants of Mesopotamia are believed to have used stone carvings as their major sources of tools especially in agriculture and warfare (Mark). This means that even as men were using stones for virtually all practical uses in their daily lifestyles, the agrarian revolution had started to take off. Although agriculture was not practiced on an extensive scale during ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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