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How do authoritarianism and sultanism differ, and which type of authoritarianism defines Arab monarchies Give contemporary exam - Essay Example

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How do authoritarianism and sultanism differ, and which type of authoritarianism defines Arab monarchies? Introduction Reviewing historical records makes it evident that non-democratic governmental orders have been in existence right from the beginning of the human civilisation…
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How do authoritarianism and sultanism differ, and which type of authoritarianism defines Arab monarchies Give contemporary exam
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How do authoritarianism and sultanism differ, and which type of authoritarianism defines Arab monarchies Give contemporary exam

Download file to see previous pages... The whole of the twentieth century has gained importance in history for creating more authoritative regimes that include Hitler’s rule of Germany, Stalin’s regime in the then USSR, Pol Pot’s reign in Cambodia and Mao’s brutal rule in China, than for democratic transformations. It is easy to relate non-democratic regimes as historical and political anomalies in the twenty-first century, especially after the collapse of the communist USSR during the late 1980s and the dramatic revolution in the Middle East (also known as the Arab Spring of 2011); however, it would be overly optimistic to view non-democratic authoritative bodies as outdated. Such perspectives fail to take into account the possibilities that forcibly removing one authoritarian leader may simply lead to another one taking his/her place, or it may also lead to foreign invasion, or even a failed state. A study of literature showed that the breakdown of the USSR and the subsequent collapse of communism did not bring democracy to countries such as Uzbekistan, neither does the ousting of authoritative heads in Yemen, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt guarantee stable democracies in all these states. In this context, Way claimed that when the collapse of the USSR and the Arab Spring of 2011 are compared, it reveals the likelihood of the survival of authoritative regimes, ‘and that those [Arab] countries which do witness authoritarian collapse will be less likely to democratize than their European counterparts were’ (2011: 17). It is noteworthy that the Middle East has singularly remained steadfast in maintaining a non-democratic authoritative regime in power in the form of monarchy or sultanism. Sultanism is a type of authoritarian regime, where a ruler is present in all aspects of governance. Sultanism is a term derived from the Arabic word sultan, which denotes an absolute monarch in Muslim societies. In the context of authoritative regimes, as seen in the Middle East and North Africa, Belling said: While the number of electoral democracies [in Middle East and North Africa] has nearly doubled since 1972, the number in this region has registered an absolute decline. Today, only two out of twenty-one countries qualify as electoral democracies, down from three observed in 1972. Stagnation is also evident in the guarantee of political rights and civil liberties. While the number of countries designated free by Freedom House has doubled in the Americas and in the Asia-Pacific region, increased tenfold in Africa, and risen exponentially in Central and East Europe over the past thirty years, there has been no overall improvement in the Middle East and North Africa. Aggregate scores in 2002 differ little from 1972. Fifteen countries are designated not free, five partly free, and only one free. While a few countries, notably Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain, and Yemen, have registered noteworthy progress toward political liberalization in the past decade, overall the vast majority of countries has failed to catch the wave of democratization that has swept nearly every other part of the world (2004: 139). This essay will make a study of the available literature to find out the differences between authoritarianism and sultanism regimes, and the type of authoritarianism that defines Arab monarchies. Discussion Non-democratic regime in the general sense relates to the rule by a political body or a government in a manner that does not ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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