Although some of the modern historians and research scholars consider Kashmir as one of the most dangerous zones in the world, sandwiched between two nuclear nations, the fact remains that it is the God’s own paradise on this earth…
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Kashmir: Point of Conflict between India and Pakistan
While India uses the secular and pluralistic card to retain its part of Kashmir, Pakistan deploys the religious bogey to gain the control of Indian Kashmir. For the people of Kashmir, it is a fight for their identity, as they are not historically aligned to the culture of either country. Pakistan has under its control a sizable part of undivided Kashmir. Pakistani authorities name it as, “Azad Kashmir” Ancient History of Kashmir Kashmir has been the envy of many neighboring states, during past several centuries. The Hindu, Buddhist, Afghan and Mogul rulers left their impact on the culture and social environment for people of Kashmir. Hinduism arrived in Kashmir, around one thousand years back, replacing the Buddhist Monarchies that ruled the region for many centuries. Islamic arrival is the latest and most recent in the history of varying cultural and religious faith for the natives of Kashmir. An Irani sufi saint. ‘Hamdani’ arrived in Kashmir, along with his followers, around four hundred years back. He was responsible for mass conversion of Hindus into Islamic fold, starting with the royal queen, the wife of ruling king ‘vikramadity’.
This goes back to the era of undivided India under the British rule. Indian freedom struggle had compelled British monarchy for complete independence to India. Lord Mountbatten was the viceroy deployed by British authorities to look over the strategy for transfer of power. He designed the partition plan along with his assistant Ismay, who was British High Commissioner to India. The policy decision involved partition of Kashmir based on religion. Although Hindus and Muslims participated in the freedom struggle without any grudge against each other, British diplomacy wanted to create a wedge between the two communities. The British Empire was already on decline, during the years of 1945-47, following the World War. The move by British authorities, as executed by Lord Mountbatten, meant to retain their strategic position in the region. Creating a separate Islamic state, from undivided India could serve its purpose of maintaining sound relations with Islamic nations of the Middle and Southeast Asia. Lord Mountbatten was responsible for motivating Indian Muslim League leader Jinnah for demanding a separate nation for Muslims, while Nehru, the Indian National Congress Leader was persuaded to reconcile to the fact of partition. The leader of freedom movement, Mahatma Gandhi played the role of a catalyst, for this transition. .(Chaulia) Kashmir was a misfit While Sardar Patel persuaded many princely states of India to reunite and agree to accession with Union of India, Junagardh, Hyderabad and Kashmir remained the disputed areas, at the time of partition. Kashmir was not ruled entirely by British forces during their rule over India. Moguls had greater influence on Kashmir and its rulers. The Hindu king of Kashmir had to face revolt by Muslims for freedom. Already weakened by such crisis, Patel persuaded the king to sign the accession treaty, which he did unwillingly. However, Kashmir got involved in Indo-Pak conflict by the Pakistani invasion in 1947, as the newly created nation wanted to have control over Kashmir, based on the
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The involvement of religion in causing wars is a highly debated topic now. Some people argue that the major reasons behind some of the ongoing conflicts in this world are purely cultural rather than political or economic. They cite Afghan war, Iraq war, conflicts in the Middle East, Kashmir issue etc for substantiating their views and opinion.
Many wars have been waged over the last 1,000 years in disputes of numerous border lines and their exact location on the ground. While an agreement can outline the latitude and longitude, can it truly be exact all the way down a border line, or even on a line set within a country?
Both the organizations have no hesitation in attacking or bombing civilian targets. However, there are many structural, functional, and ideological differences between Al Qaeda and Irish Republican Army or IRA. Al Qaeda has thousands of militants and has many different committees to coordinate its functions.
Background of the dispute, events between 1947 and 2001 will be considered. Then events over the last decade, the current situation, will be examined. Finally, prospects for the future, specifically prospects for the resolution of the dispute will be considered.
What main objectives did the British and Russian Empires pursue in the course of the ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia and Afghanistan?
The Great Game in Central Asia and Afghanistan referred to the rivalry of the British and Russian Empire, empires seeking dominance over the other in Central Asia.
Religion is just about as old as man’s ability to reason. Ever since the time of our ancestors, we have been looking for things, beings, or ideas to believe in. This is why there is evidence of ancient races worshiping things like the sun, or rocks and trees, animals or other objects, and even certain people.
In more recent times, Pakistan has become a hot bed of Islamic extremism that advocates for Jihad or Holy war against the enemies of Allah. This has seen the proliferation of outfits like Al Qaeda and the Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan. The objective of this essay is to try and identify the primary cause of Pakistan’s inability to unite and govern its citizens within the rule of law and good governance.
Still, the problem persists, as it has a complexity due to many factors such as history, politics, ideology, geographical boundaries, race, and so forth. In this paper, an assumption is made that the ongoing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians is rooted in religion, or more particularly in a religious bias.
ors to introduce cultural and social harmony among common people from different socio-religious traditions, communication is considered as a matter of highest importance in order to maintain the pace of such harmonization. The human existence, though, is dependent on several