Date Rise of Nationalism in Europe Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The rise of nationalism in Europe 2.1. Conception of Nationalism 2.2. The French Revolution 2.3. Napoleon 2.4. Emergence of Nation- State 2.5. Liberalism 2.6…
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Introduction Nationalism is an idea that materialized in the eighteenth and nineteenth century causing developments in Europe. Europe had been characterized by dominant monarchies who exercised autocracy in their territory. Many countries in Europe welcomed the spirit of nationalism and became transformed into nation-states. Although the process hand many challenges nationalism was adapted leading to the conception of nation- states. This term paper talks about the rise of nationalism in Europe. It will identify major events like evolutions and the spread of key ideologies to explain the rise of nationalism in Europe. This term paper will consult various print materials to get a clear picture of how nationalism as a concept was perceived and implemented in Europe. 2. The rise of nationalism in Europe Gellner and Breuilly (2) note that, nationalism is the notion of people with a common geographical origin that they can identify with one another. Such people have a common culture which is common to them. Cultural identity include: dressing, cuisine, language, myths, legends and beliefs. Therefore, a specific territory would have a political system. 2.1. Conception of Nationalism Nationalism evolved over a long period in Europe since different people with a common origin had their own practices concerning their territory. Different states had developed power control mechanism over a specified territory. A nation-state emerged after different leaders together with their general public discovered they shared their decent and would identify with shared history as Smith (13) discusses. The notion of nationalism was born out struggles championed by the population and leaders. The actions of champions of nationalism brought about changes in the European political system and perception about Europe. For instance Italy and Germany were formed from different states that claimed common identity as Todd (14) mentions. However, other countries such as Poland, Greece, Bulgaria and Romania had to struggle for their independence. Europe ended up with nation-states since the dynasties and empires were absorbed by the spirit of nationalism. Nationalism was championed by the French Revolution which adapted the notion of a nation-state. Leaders such as Napoleon campaigned for approval of nationalism to cause political transformation. The revolution emphasized brotherhood, equality as well as liberty. The revolutionist wanted to accentuate that people with a common origin could attain self-determinism and become accustomed to liberal ideologies. There was intellectual enlightenment that people could articulate their nationhood by prescribing to their culture for national identity. Leaders such as Friedrich Hegel of Germany believed that identifying with nationality was going to remain strong while religions and empires were declining. During the Napoleon wars dynasties could not be restored because they supported legitimism and failed to recognize nationalism. People were keen to obey royal authority and left nationalism to political radicals and scholars. Carlsbad Decrees published in Australia in early nineteenth century caused political repression. This agitated nationalists (Smith 24). 2.2. The French Revolution Towards the end of eighteenth century nationalism ideas surfaced with the French Revolution. In 1789 France was ruled by a monarch with a clear territory. The French revolution saw the powers of the monarch being transferred to a group of French citizens. These changes were made in the
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