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World civilizations in eighteenth century - Term Paper Example

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The essay brings us to eighteenth century, which was a period of great changes in every sphere of human life. It threw up some great thinkers, whose ideas of enlightenment contributed to social progress, in the spheres of equal rights and freedoms for all people. …
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World civilizations in eighteenth century
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Download file to see previous pages Therefore the workforce required for agriculture decreased and this led to a migration of this workforce to the field of industry, which in turn led to the industrial revolution. Before the industrial revolution, goods were manufactured using basic hand tools or machines in homes. The introduction of powered machinery that could mass produce goods in factories, led to the need for new markets for these goods, as well as new means of transportation to carry them. Mechanization of the textile industry coupled with improved techniques for making iron, and the invention of the steam engine, that revolutionized the transport system, in turn led to improved systems of trade and finance. Engines and machines that could do away with the physical labor of man, besides cutting down the time taken to accomplish it was a blessing indeed! Britain was the first to begin mechanized spinning and weaving because she was blessed with the moist weather conditions that helped in this industry. Besides, the fast moving streams supplied hydropower for these mills. As the economy moved from manual to machine based manufacturing, the manufacturing time was slashed and new markets were needed for these goods. The mechanization of spinning was followed in quick succession by the development of techniques for making iron. The introduction of the steam engine was the final triumph that revolutionized the transport system and increased the use of refined coal to power these steam engines. Britain being an island nation, her ports enabled her to trade in these goods and at this time Britain indeed ruled the waves. The efforts of British entrepreneurs were rewarded due to the fact that they had a large and ready market for their goods. Growing trade and commerce in...
This paper shows that the thinkers wanted to bring about changes in society through the promotion of education and scientific thinking. In some European countries, a system of government called “Enlightened Despotism” came into being. Later, we are shown the need to feed the growing population, which led to a transformation in agricultural systems like improved machinery, scientific methods of breeding and introduction of new crops and crop rotation. Throughout the paper, we are given more and more information on the introduction of powered machinery that could mass produce goods in factories, led to the need for new markets for these goods, as well as new means of transportation to carry them. This paper also focuses on trade. Trade systems were dominated by those who held sway over the seas, and expansion of trade depended on the acquisition of colonies and the superiority of naval power. Swiftly from trade, the paper talks about the banking. For example, the Bank of England that worked as a government bank as well as a commercial operation, led to the setting up of a number of private banks throughout the country. In conclusion, we see that this industrial revolution transformed the lives of people in every stratum of British, European and American society. Building on the ideas of enlightenment of thinkers such as Voltaire and Rousseau, the eighteenth century saw the overthrow of despotic rule through the American and French revolutions and sowed the seeds of many more such upheavals in the centuries that followed. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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