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1). This research work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the counterinsurgency measures adopted by the U.S. in Afghanistan. Background of the Problem The principal argument of this study is that the US should deploy its resources in a manner that promote capabilities, which improve the competence of the Afghan government and its security forces, in conducting counterinsurgency operations. There have been several instances, wherein the US forces have enraged the Afghan villagers. This has been attributed to the ignorance among these soldiers, regarding the cultural and social traditions of the Afghans. It has been suggested that the US forces should abstain from interacting with the people and permit the Afghan authorities to take the necessary steps (Jones, 2008, p. 93). A major feature of counterinsurgency (COIN) warfare is the battle to win over the hearts and minds of the target population. This has been attempted even with the most seemingly isolated members of the population, in remote villages and rural regions. For this purpose shortwave radio has been employed. This initiative would further alienate the Afghans towards the Karzai government, which is detested in the extreme; local politicians; governors; tribal chiefs; warlords and militia commanders, who are supporters of the highly unpopular Karzai administration (Kilcullen, 2009, pp. 50 – 51). Assistance has been scanty if not totally absent, in the rural areas. These areas had been at the greatest risk from the Taliban, and had been totally dissatisfied with the almost non – existent change. The fate of counterinsurgency in Afghanistan will be determined by what happens in rural Afghanistan. The developments in the urban regions will have little if any bearing on the success of failure of counterinsurgency (Jones, 2008, p. 4). Consequently, counterinsurgency has to reach such people. Rationale How effective was the U.S. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan? I have examined the relevant literature pertaining to the present topic, by eminent scholars, like Jones, Kilcullen, Ganesh Sitaraman, Mark, Johnson, Schreer, for answering the question. I have examined strategies, such as the traditional social hierarchies and the different forms of legitimacy, local, specialised knowledge trumps doctrine and theory. I have obtained information regarding the actual state of affairs with regard to fair elections, rule of law, and economic development in Afghanistan. The opinion of the authorities in this area, has contributed to the assessment of the situation. Issues, such as the exercise of power by the government, harmonisation of development, governance and security were provided by Mark. Positive elements in the extant literature, with respect to counterinsurgency are the unbiased opinion of eminent scholars and the provision of the true picture regarding the present situation, regarding the governance of Afghanistan. I will further investigate these issues, after applying the relevant theories and strategies, pertaining to the counterinsurgency measures. As such, I can expand my research on the issues discussed in the literature, and arrive at better conclusions regarding the current problem. Hypothesis The counterinsurgency measures adopted by the US in Afghanistan have proved to be inadequate. This synopsis of insurgency in Afghanistan, brings to the fore the factors that had ensured the success of insurgencies in the past; external support, variations in the quality of the security forces, and challenges to governance. Research Questions What is insurgence?
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