The Holy squad and the Ottoman’s group led by Ali Pasha confronted each other in Gulf of Patras. The holy league comprised of: Spain, which included Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Kingdoms; Venice republic, Genoa and Duchies of Savoy and Urbino. The entire Christians troops consisted of about 200 galleys and about 6 other super or larger galleys, established by the venetians. Doe John was supported by Charles 1 and V, from Spain and Roman Empire respectively (Bicheno, 312). The Christian alliance saw the Muslims troops as a threat to the well being of trade routes, along the Mediterranean Sea. They also felt that Ottoman soldiers could comprise security in the land of Europe. Ottoman’s troops comprised of about 14,000 sailors and 35,000 soldiers with remarkable experience. They were majorly from Egypt and Syria. Their overall commander was Ali Pasha, who was supported by Uluc Ali and Alexandria. Ottoman troop had about 220 galleys and 50 galliots among other war vessels. The Muslim camp also comprised of slaves, who were basically Christians captured some time before the battle broke. Both troops had peculiar skills that were used to disadvantage the opponent. Ottomans were good sailors; hence they could attack their opponents and make their way back to safer grounds. Christians on the other hand were good with guns that made them kill their opponents at a distance. The main cause of the battle is associated with Pope Pius V, objecting the Ottoman’s move to expand its territories towards Turkey.
The pope interpreted the threat as ‘Spiritual’, he lamented that Muslims wanted to frustrate the Christian community for some benefits. Muslims wanted to control all the trade routes in the entire Europe, this would make Christians give up their faith and join them, and they opted to take control of Mediterranean region. Furthermore, Muslims wanted everyone to submit to their Sharia law. However, the Christian community was divided since some Protestants defected to become enemies of the Catholic. Don John’s troop aimed at releasing the Christians who were held captive by the Ottoman Empire (Capponi, 178). The Muslim troop captured several Christians upon on their defeat. Venetians, for instance, surrendered in exchange of Cyprus (their leader) released alive. However, this was never honored since Ottomans commander ordered all venetians to be arrested. His bitterness was due to the loss of over 50,000 Muslims soldiers, his son included. Some venetians were murdered and their heads hung along the Mustafa’s valley. This was to pass some warning to the Christian community. The Ottoman’s troop lost to the Christians. History records that this was a great defeat since the Muslims had never lost to any war since 15th Century. The defeat gave hopes to the Christian community who were almost giving up for Islamic. Several slaves, who were basically Christians, were left free to reunite with their family members. Ottomans lost an average of 32,000soldiers and 40 ships. The Battle of Lepanto was regarded as the greatest in the land, other than that of Actium held around 31 BC. Despite, their loss to the Christians, Muslims re-established their empire based on skills learnt from the superior Christian troops. History records that Ottoman had an average of 140 galleys, 5 galleasses and 200 ships about six months after their defeat. The war came with several lessons to both the Christians and Muslims.