We live in a modern society filled with all sorts of crime, from muggings in darkened allies to cyber-crimes in the faceless forum of the internet.The world today can be a dangerous place. The implementation of Crime Prevention approaches have been, and continue to be, a large part of the solution to these problems. …
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We live in a modern society filled with all sorts of crime, from muggings in darkened allies to cyber-crimes in the faceless forum of the internet. The world today can be a dangerous place. The implementation of Crime Prevention approaches have been, and continue to be, a large part of the solution to these problems. Crime Prevention is defined as the attempts made to deter crime, lower victimization, significantly enhance the gathering of data on criminal acts, and provide potential prevention response and preparedness (Rosenbaum, Lurigio & Davis, 1998). Video surveillance, or CCTV, has become a favored choice in the goal of preventing criminal activity in both businesses and private properties, and now by government and law enforcement to monitor potential criminal activities of the day to day populace. There are many people who are eager for that level of “persistent “security,” while others believe it is a blatant betrayal of individual privacy and civil rights. However, after reviewing the studies attempted, public response, and potential negative side effects, it becomes amply obvious that the video surveillance approach is misleading and not particularly effective in actually preventing crimes. Issues The Studies It can be difficult to study comparable efficiencies of video surveillance because of all the differing factors involved, the size of cities, population, and number of cameras is only a small part. The studies performed in the U.S. and Britain came to the same conclusion concerning video surveillance. Britain has embraced the video surveillance age and has for quite some time. There are approximately 4.2 million CCTV cameras in Britain; it is possible for one person to appear on a hundred different cameras in any given day. The U.S. by comparison has far less cameras (Landler, 2007). The U.S. studies were performed in California: the first by UC Berkeley in San Francisco and the second - by USC in Los Angeles. Regardless of the number of cameras, whether in the U.S. or Britain, there were no significant changes identified in crime rates over all. The Cost Despite the questionable success ratio, multiple other U.S. cities are encouraging the implementation video surveillance systems; Chicago and New York are just two. This is a very serious concern. Millions of taxpayer dollars are currently being invested in video surveillance, but entirely neglecting to look seriously at the efficiency, practicality, logistics, and cost effectiveness of the endeavors (Biale, n. d.). Combining the cost of the technology, the related equipment, the law enforcement cooperation necessary, and the staff needed to monitor and maintain the equipment, it becomes very obvious that video surveillance may be a complete waste of money, particularly, in these bleak economic times that the U.S. is still suffering. Even more so, after the ACLU, American Civil Liberties Union, published the results of studies showing that when a person stares at multiple monitors, after 20 minutes their attention span dramatically reduces, well below the acceptable levels ("What's wrong with," 2002). So the people who are supposed to be watching for “crimes” are compromised and not particularly efficient. Public Opinions Citizens of the U.S. seem care less about the ability of video surveillance to deter crime and more about whether it is a genuine invasion of individual privacy. The idea does bring up questions concerning if it is “just” for American citizens to be watched all of the time? Also, if people know they are being watched, will they behave differently? For many people it could create anxiety, paranoia, and forced unnatural behaviors to avoid “looking suspicious,” even when they are doing nothing illegal or inappropriate. It could also alter people’s daily routines, where they go and how often. The ACLU also warns that potential dangers of regular video surveillance
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Society has become more complex and more dynamic in its character, which in turn has direct effect on its people. Society is essentially defined as a self contained community with people who come together from various segments, share the same geography, share their cultures, and share social relations while maintaining their individualism.
These crime prevention programs have been formulated so as to finish all sorts of crime from grass root level whatever they may be. The need for such crime prevention programs has been since long but work on these programs just began about two decades ago.
It is estimated that in excess of 4.2 million surveillance cameras have been installed in public places in U.K as of date which is far above the quantum of such cameras around the globe. It is to be observed that in the middle of 1990s; about seventy-five percent of UK government’s crime prevention budget was earmarked for CCTV operations.
vi). However, analysis of the study aims, findings, and the methodologies and research techniques used by the authors suggests that the basic objectives may also include the following:
The purposes help determine the relevance and importance of the authors' effort.
8(2). There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
The differences between these two approaches to criminal behaviour have been widely recognised as misleading. Practically, organisations responsible to prevent and control criminal behaviour in order to be effective have to adopt and combine both situational and social approaches to crime prevention.
But it did not have a negative impact as many had thought and many states then followed in implementation of this law. It came to be realized with time that carrying firearms had a positive effect on the crime prevention. There are many reasons to this effect.
Criminals work tirelessly to find improved ways of getting their way. The police work effortlessly to develop the best ways of crime prevention and control. As a result, criminals are constantly seeking improved technologies of committing the crime whilst the police are constantly seeking improved technologies for outsmarting criminals.
lage is levelling the hierarchy of surveillance in a systematic manner to the point that individuals or groups who were previously exempted from surveillance are now being monitored. Previously, surveillance was only directed to specific groups of individuals in the society and
The same has been comprehensively highlighted by Marcus Nieto in his article Public Video Surveillance: Is It An Effective Crime Prevention Tool?
Marcus Nieto has written a very impressive article which sheds light upon how video surveillance can be used to curb
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