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The examinations were graded in levels as discussed below; District level People who had passed the zau jyun si (district level exam) achieved the status of tong sheng and could sit the prefectural level exams. Those individuals were commoners and about 2% of the population had such qualifications. Prefectural level Successful candidates at this stage attained the Sang jyun degree and the most outstanding holders of this degree were awarded the gung sang degree and were the lower gentry. The exam was conducted twice after every three years by about 2% of the population. Level 2b Rich people within the government who were too lazy to study were allowed to buy a gaam sang degree in order to improve their social status, they became the lower gentry. Provincial level Those who passed the xiang shi were awarded the Geoi Jan degree and became members of the upper gentry.hey were done at the provincial capital every three years by about 0.0065% of the population. Metropolitan level Successful candidates at this stage were awarded the gong sheng degree and could immediately sit the din shi and be given the zeon si degree. They became the highest gentry and had rights to hold office although such positions were not guaranteed. Most of them worked as intermediaries between the government officials and the local peasants. This system was abolished in 1905 to adopt the science and technology based curricula practiced by the western nations. This set it apart from the Song Dynasty exam system that followed Confucian classical methods. Q2: Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty The Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty were both built around the same time i.e Qin around 221-208 BC and Chinese rulers’ controlled Han around 206BC-AD 220.Both Dynasties. Under this dynasties heir was no central political force in China and as such, the great nomad empires emerged such Liao and the great Mongol empires. Both tenures were characterized by ruthlessness and tyrannical demands on the people to pay heavy taxes and compulsory labor. These dynasties were effective in the sense that, during these periods there was relative peace in China. However, they both had weak military forces and were easily overrun by the nomadic tribes of the north. Both the Sui and the Tang Dynasty rulers’ were part nomads. These rulers’ were non-Chinese but their reign was considered Chinese. Both regimes were very successful in terms of commerce as the Sui were able to connect Yellow and Yangtze (Grand Canal) eastward waterways starting from Beijing to Hangzhou, thereby enabling nationwide commerce to thrive especially under the more prosperous Tang Dynasty. In addition, both Dynasties occurred after the reign of the Six Dynasties i.e. Sui from 589-617 AD and Tang from 618-907 AD(Ebrey, Walthall & Palais 2009 p89). These Dynasties were effective in the sense that they had stronger military’s that helped re-unify China and that there was improvement in commerce in this periods. However, under these regimes the citizens suffered tyranny from the government in the form of forced labor and heavy taxes. in addition, the costly and often disastrous military escapades in Korea combined with corruption, disloyalty and assassinations led to popular revolts resulting in the overthrow of the Sui dynasty. Q3: Women in imperial China It is possible to understand the overreliance of women on their male relatives as pillars of their lives (Hinsch, 2002). This is clear in the book ‘The Soul of Chien-nu leaves her Body’. Since Chien-nu relies on her lover Wang Wen-chu to help drive away the fear, she runs up to the river in the hope of finding him (Lu, 1990 p91). As she sings, she mentions the fear that she can’
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John Cadbury founded the company “Cadbury” in 1831 with the aim of fulfilling the people’s desire of having delicious and best quality chocolates at affordable prices (Cadbury, 2012). The company has been successful in its mission and has completely revolutionized the processing market of cocoa since 1866.
Most if not all countries of the world have realized that for them to achieve economic development they need to embrace globalization. Over the years, there has been a perception that China’s policies seem to seek development and prosperity in isolation.
Within the case of the British Empire and the means by which China was a target of a protracted economic and political war in the 18th century, one must first seek to understand why the British were interested in attempting to smuggle opium into China in the first place, how China reacted, and what the end result of this operation ultimately yielded.
CCP took advantage of superiority of KMT in spreading communism. On the other hand, KMT used CCP to control communism from within the country. This resulted into diversity of interests for the alliance; hence the Front became unsustainable. The Nationalist Field Marshal purged the Communist from the Front, and this initiated civil war between KMT and CCP, and this lasted until the formation of Second United Front in 1936 (Burdekin & Whited, 2005).
The Chinese Communist Army defeated Japanese Forces during the Second World War. At that point of time, the communists turned on Kuomintang. In the year 1949, they established People’s Republic of China. Mao Zedong followed communism throughout his life.
The Northern Song (Sung) dynasty (969 - 1126) brought its own changes into the governing of the imperia. From the military point of view this dynasty was not powerful. Furthermore, there was no full agreement in opinions between the civil bureaucrats and this eventually resulted in the dynasty fall.
Before the two World Wars, China was in a very poor state. As other nations were developing rapidly China lacked in every field. The falling Qin dynasty was not able to handle social and economical condition that was deteriorating, and had mortgaged the revenues and other of its natural resources to the strong foreign countries.
The weakness of their defense is clearly shown in Sino-Japanese war. This war was lost by the people of China because of their lack in technology and defense. This further made the officials of China to think that some reforms
It was also out of the reality at the time that the world was a fast changing economic arena that required a country to not only adapt to it but to also sought ways of moving ahead in time to counter the