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Civil Wars and Peace - Essay Example

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Civil wars and peace Name Institutional affiliation Tutor Date Civil wars and peace Civil wars are organized forms of aggression by citizens against their government. Peace, in essence, is the prerequisite for all human rights. Article three of the Universal Human Rights Declaration states that “everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.” It is, therefore, the prerogative of every state to ensure the safety of its citizens and safeguard their human right to security…
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Civil Wars and Peace
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Download file to see previous pages In previous years, the most important focus on war was on interstate wars. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, there has been a heave in civil wars around the world. This perturbing trend of citizens rising against their governments needs strict analysis. In this essay, focus will be shed on civil war: the causes, effects, and actions taken to cultivate peace. In most cases, war leads to peace. It has often been said that there cannot be peace without war. Accordingly, this essay will also seek to establish the relationship between war and peace. Causes of civil war Political analysts and theorists of international relations have come up with several theories to explain the occurrence of civil wars. These reasons may vary from one country to another, but fundamentally, economic, political and cultural reasons are the main reasons for civil wars. Distribution of economic resources Most countries that have experienced civil wars can attest to the fact that disproportionate distribution of national resources was one of the factors that led to outbreak of war. When citizens start feeling like they are getting less than they deserve, they riot against the government. A case in point is the Sudanese civil war that lasted over twenty years. Sudan began exporting oil in 1999 and promised that proceeds from oil sales would be distributed equally in the country. However, when the government failed to distribute the wealth to the south, South Sudanese rebels started attacking North Sudan claiming their fair share of oil wealth. The two sides fought over the monopoly of oil profits as each wanted to control the sale of oil. South Sudan accused north Sudan of benefitting from the sale of oil that actually lay in South Sudan. In another case, the long standing civil war in Congo was primarily caused by the vast natural resources found in the country. The availability of minerals such as gold and copper led to conflicts. President Mobutu used the minerals to enrich himself and ensure that he stayed in power (Karl & Heo, 2007). This selfishness angered the citizens and opposition leaders who formed rebel groups to oust Mobutu from office. Political ideologies Differences in political ideologies have often led to civil wars within and among states. According to Levy and Thompson (2011), the type of political ideology that governs a country determines the stability of that particular country. In democratic regimes, citizens enjoy their human and constitutional rights, thus determining the way the state is run. In dictatorial systems, on the other hand, citizens are usually oppressed and do not have a say on how they are governed. Autocratic governments, oppressive as they may be, may not often experience civil wars since the people are afraid of the government. Semi-democratic regimes are more probable to be affected by civil wars. This is because citizens are aware of their rights and are able to petition the government to grant them their rights. In recent times, however, occurrences have proved that citizens can stand up against tyrants. The Arab uprising is one perfect example of how willing citizens can dislodge dictators from power. The Arab spring of 2011 started with the ousting of Tunisia’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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