Every country has the responsibility to protect the rights of its citizens by ensuring that all citizens and noncitizens within its boundaries receive fair and equitable treatment regardless of their gender, race, religion, sexual orientations and age among other factors…
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Democracy is the ideology whose main basis is ensuring equality for all and since many countries exercise democracy or its many variations, it means that many attempt to protect the human rights for the people under their protection. There is a direct correlation between the level of human rights protection and democracy, such that the closer to an ideal democracy a country is, the higher its likelihood of upholding high standards of human rights.1 This essay defines human rights, states the role of the state in upholding high human rights standards, and analyses Iceland and Pakistan and their levels of human rights protection. Definition of Human Rights By virtue of being human beings, people are entitled to rights and freedoms that should be universally accepted and available for everyone. In national and international laws, human rights exist as natural or legal rights; if they are not stated in the constitution, they are natural rights; otherwise, they are known as legal rights.2 Most public policies are based on the doctrine of human rights, including international and regional institutions, state policies, and activities of non-governmental organizations. However, due to the strong claims made for ideal human rights, they are hard to implement in they entirety, especially considering that many countries are just emerging from dictatorial and colonial rule. Moreover, it is not even clear what the term right means, mainly because in order to adhere to some of these rights, some people have to be favored over others. For instance, everyone has the right to a decent life; this means that states have to favor the unemployed people in an attempt to give them a life that is comparable to those who are employed. In any case, people believe they are entitled to some rights and privileges by virtue of their age, gender and economic status among other factors. Role of the State The state is responsible for enforcing the human rights of the people within its jurisdiction, and punishing offenders. It does this mainly by ensuring that people enjoy their human rights without interfering with those of others; laws, policies and Acts are the main tools used for this purpose. However, it does not mean that human rights have to be written; since they are basic rights, it means that if someone infringes into the rights of others, it is clear, though there may be some complications where religion and culture are involved. The level at which a government can enforce human rights is dependent on the structure of the government, with ideal democracies and dictatorships having the most and least respect for human rights respectively. Nowadays many countries lie between these two extremes, and their level of human rights enforcement varies depending on how much they share a characteristic with these two opposite ends.3 Most constitutional republics have a clause of human rights in their supreme law, which is uniform across all states. The level of implementation of these rights varies from time to time as governments change, changes in political stability, social factors and other environmental factors. The state ensures that all its people’s rights are protected at all times as conditions may permit. For instance, the basic rights of the people are limited if the country is in a state of emergency or undergoing a military coup. Moreover, the state is charged with ensuring that all local or international individuals, corporates, and other entities respect the human rights of its citizens wherever they may be.4 State Analysis As mentioned above, various states have varied levels of implementation
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The questions on human rights protection has been a hot topic in the international community for a long time. Every person has fundamental rights such as the right to live, to freedom and security as described in every state’s laws and even in the international society.
The most important document that was passed in this effort was the Universal Declaration of Human rights. It was accepted and adopted on 10 Dec, 1948 by the General Assembly of the United Nations (United Nations, 1948). The rights provided by the declaration were divided into civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
This sets democracy different from others and makes it more preferred by many. As such, which also leads us to the second premise, democracy, given its democratic institutions and democratic processes and despite its weaknesses, is the best instrument there is today to protect universal human rights.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? Introduction The last century has seen two of the most horrendous wars in form of world wars. While the first laid foundation for the consideration towards peace, the second one established the resolve for further protection of the mankind.
Although, the UN has implemented adequate efforts for the proper enforcement of these rights, many situations in the present world can still be considered as examples of violations of the basic principles of these rights. The scenario of international trade is one such situation where the developed countries still exercise their authority and prevent many of the underdeveloped nations from participating fairly in commercial exchanges.
That is the true measure of what terrorism may achieve. It is for Parliament to decide whether to give the terrorists such a victory"
In December 2004, the House of Lords, UK, opposed Britain's detention of foreign nationals suspected of terrorism indefinitely and held without trial.
Universal human rights usually are voiced and guaranteed by law, in the forms of, customary international law, general principles, treaties, among other basis of international law. The international human rights law regulates how
According to the research findings, it is critical therefore that homeland security as a department must evolve and develop its relationships with the body which is responsible for the formulation of the laws in this country. A better coordination and understanding between the two can actually help the department to seek the required legal and statutory back up to further strengthen its overall security environment.
..in responding to gender discrimination-and to explore why this is so" (Alston/Goodman: 166) DISCUSS. Introduction Traditionally, women have often been viewed as subservient to men. This subservience has mostly been attributed to physical qualities, with men often developing as stronger individuals, more dominant towards their female counterparts.
The influx of Albanian refugees over a decade ago has been quite massive due to the war in Kosovo. However, it seems that not all immigrants are refugees from the war since it has been found out that mostly are from Albania and has taken advantage of the war to seek asylum in the UK and along with it, British passports and citizenship (London Evening Standard 2007).
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