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This class of people controlled nearly all religious offices plus issued partum auctoritas (final assent) to some of the decisions passed by the Roman assemblies. The rich had more influence on politics at that time. However, in staying in a Roman Republic and still subjected to injustice just like the eras of Kings, the poorer Roman citizens were not happy with how the current government became ran. Due to unfair distribution of land and debts, the plebians (poorer Roman citizens) became prompted to form their own assemblies and withdraw from certain city-states. The plebians principal demands remained debt relief plus equitable distribution of conquered territory to Roman citizens. In 287 B.C., wealthier, land rich plebians managed to achieve political equality to the patricians with the Conflict of orders in place. Hence, there was a rebirth of the political system consisting of plebians and patricians, a power-sharing partnership which remained up to the late 1st century B.C. The Republic had a government running it. The government had three main parts: The consuls, the assemblies and the senate. Rome managed to grow and become a metroplolis consisting of a capital city and vast conquered territory. Roman Republic had provinciae (administered territories) outside Italy like Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, and many others. As the new government acquired more wealth, so did the Roman citizens benefit. The Republic had a strong Army in place responsible for winning many battles and acquiring new territories. With Roman soldiers winning more battles and getting rewarded more, they became more loyal to their generals than the state. During the same period, Rome became increasingly plagued by many slave uprisings since they were the majority and covered most lands. Between 135-71B.C., there were 3 ‘servile wars’ that involved slaves against the Roman state. The worst of them was the third and was under the command of Spartacus, a gladiator. Furthermore, in 91 BC, social war broke out over dissent between Rome and Italy. Italy often contributed men in Rome’s military campaigns but received no rewards for their help contributed to the social wars. This led to them breaking away from Rome and becoming independent. Romans started also to wage wars with their previous allies too, like Jugurtha. In 111BC to 104 BC, the Jugurthine war became fought between Jugurtha of North Africa and Rome. Jugurtha became finally captured through treachery instead of a battle. In addition, we also had the wars between the Romans and the Carthaginians. The second Punic war involved Hannibal, a Carthaginian that attacked Rome. This had much impact on the Romans since they could not defeat Hannibal for 15 years. The Rome mastered and improved their military warfare after endless attempts in fighting with the great commander. It became the tactful help of a Roman, Scipio Africanus, that attackeds Carthege capital leading to the defeat of Hannibal in the battle of Zama. Internal unrest reached its peak as evidenced by two civil wars caused by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a consul in the beginning of 82 BC. The Roman army led by Sulla overthrew the Republic and paved way to the founding of the Roman Empire. The new wealth generated social break down and led to political turmoil, which eventually led to collapse of the Republic. In fact, they had issue of people trying to kill those in power in order to overthrow them. For instance, the first Catiline’s conspiracy occurred when Catiline intended to slaughter the new counsels on the day of election and name himself as head of office. In addition, Tiberius Gracchus got killed due to his stand to pass a law that would leave the rich
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This research explores what has changed from the Roman republican era through to the imperial period, what has stayed the same and some possible reasons of this. Looking to Roman history, politics and culture essay explains what was happening to the art and culture of the Romans.
Polybius shows the reader what functions belong to every form of power: the consuls embody the monarchical element, the senate is the aristocratic element and people are the democratic element. This situation existed at the time of greatest prosperity of the Roman state, and survived with little change in the time of Polybius.
The explanation of the Roman government structure shows that living in Rome could be a double edged sword. As long as all three parties work unanimously and decide upon decision with equal consultation form all parties, one could never argue about the discrepancies in the divisions of the government ruling.
The Roman Republic that was in existence between 509-31 BC was more of a union of several states under the control of a central authority that was representative. In terms of structure, the Roman Republic was a three-tier form of government comprising of the executive branch headed by a magistrate/consul, executive branch made up of several hundreds of senators, and lastly the Assembly of Tribes that was made up of the rest of citizens.
The author’s deviation from a Catiline biography to an account of observations and perceptions on the Roman society makes this document a primary account of the existing Roman society around 50 B.C. His narration is a perfect source for the classic concept of the rise and fall of European empires.
Originally a small provincial town, Rome rose to prominence and produced astounding strengths, which was then lost when Rome became incapable of defending its governing structures of the republic. It is the purpose of this study to highlight these events, giving reasons that led to the decay of the Roman Republic, and the rise of the Roman Empire.
was little more than an armed camp of brigands" that ended up becoming "the greatest man-made power the world had ever seen" (par. 2). The Roman Empire was largely built on military strength, political stability, and advanced infrastructure. Many of these factors were adapted by the Romans in a way that had never before been seen, essentially putting Rome on the cutting edge of civilization.