This paper is aimed at providing a comparative study of the Parthenon and the Acropolis in Athens and the Pantheon and Colosseum in Rome. The idea of this research emerged from the author’s interest and fascination in how each represents its period and culture…
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This research will begin with the statement that in comparing the Greek and Roman cultures one must first study a brief history of the cultures surrounding the cities in which these magnificent buildings were first built. Athens began as a great limestone rock, a holy or sacred place rising to the Attica plateau. The Acropolis as it is called means in Greek, “the highest point of the town.” Many ancient cities were built on principles of height as a fortress for protection; however, the Acropolis has special meaning as a sacred place for an emerging Greek dynasty. The great limestone rock measures from the basin to 70 meters and levels out at the top at 300 meters long and 150 meters wide. The top has become very flat due to many landfills over the course of history which allowed construction of its temples and buildings. The Acropolis was a prime location for habitation and worship due to its shallow caves and underground water springs. Its steep slopes were also a great source of protection during an unstable time in history. A deep well dug at the north end of the rock was very useful to the defenders during a long siege. It provided an almost endless underground water supply. The Acropolis functioned also as a residence for royalty, a place to worship for the Goddess of fertility and nature, and her male companion God Erechtheus. The Acropolis hill is sometimes called the “sacred rock” of Athens and is seen as holding the most important sites of the city and secrets of the ancient Greek culture. This sacred rock is the beginning of some of the architectural masterpieces of Greek history and culture. Relics of offerings made to the Goddess Athena in marble, korai, bronze and clay date back to the Archaic period around 650-480 B.C.).
The Parthenon was built on the site of other cultures that came before them. It was considered a sacred place. The purpose of the Parthenon was to cement the temples of earlier cultures as well as experience and praise the Greek goddess Athena. The name Parthenon refers to the worship of the goddess who is the patroness of the city of Athens. Mythology has it that she was born fully-grown out of the head of her father Zeus. This reverts back to the Greek belief that she represented the greater order of spiritual development with the gifts of intellect and understanding. She is seen as a symbol to the human aspect of wisdom.
Two architects, Ictinus and Callicrates, supervised by the sculptor, Phidias, built the Parthenon. Considered a temple, the Parthenon was built according to the Doric order of architecture, the simplest of classical Greek architectural styles. It represented simplicity along with power; built to precise dimensions using mathematical ratios of sacred geometry. The building is rectangular and measured 101.34 feet wide by 228.14 feet long from the top of its
base. When new it was constructed of white marble, 46 columns, and tile roofing. It contained a nearly 40 foot tall statue of the goddess Athena. The statue was constructed of wood, gold and ivory. Athens most significant and prosperous time in history was the 5th century BC under the reign of Pericles. During this time the Greeks developed a constitution that gave all citizens the right to participate in the governing of the state. Democracy was the most significant achievement of the early Greeks. Considered the Golden Age of Athens, the Parthenon was built when arts, philosophy and drama were at their highest point. Unfortunately, the Peloponnesian War with Athenians and Sparta ended development. The building has been damaged over past centuries by looters, modern day automobile exhausts, industrial pollution and acid rain.
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(“The Parthenon in Athens and the Pantheon in Rome Essay”, n.d.)
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(The Parthenon in Athens and the Pantheon in Rome Essay)
“The Parthenon in Athens and the Pantheon in Rome Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1437599-compare-and-contrast-the-parthenon-in-athens-with-parthenon-in-rome.
Thus because of this, we are able to see the influence of the Greeks on the roman art through comparing the two structures. A part from being places of worship the two temples share other common characteristics. However, they also have a number of differences in terms of function, themes and ideology.
Every civilization throughout the history had its specific architecture and therefore today we have so many historical places all around the globe. The architecture is the real representative of culture, time period and the aesthetic sense of people belonging to a particular region or civilization.
The building is circular with a front entrance portico made up of eight large Corinthian columns made of granite. There are another two groups of four behind that are all under pediment. There is a vestibule, rectangular in shape that links the porch to the cupola that is beneath a coffered concrete auditorium.
This symbolism can be found in the geometry applied to the constructive elements or in the philosophy and religion applied to the interior spaces.
It was built in Rome at the beginning of the Roman Empire and it was originally dedicated to all the gods. As it is written in the portico's frieze ('Made by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, in his third consulship'), it was originally built by Agrippa during his third consulship, around 27 B.C.
These architects might not have had the same religion, but have exhibited the equal dedication to their cause.
The Etruscan Belvedere Temple at Orvieto, Italy was built in the fifth century B.C. (Brenders). Francis Brenders also states on his website that
The hardness of this stone explains why most of Guedea votives remain in existence today. Guedea regarded himself as the supreme god, and for him to keep in touch with other gods Guedea kept several statues in various temples within the vicinity
The artwork without its background is incomplete and blends in with all the other artworks. In order to truly appreciate an artwork, one must analyze the artwork with reference to its background.
The purpose of
It had craters that depicted males and amphorae that depict females. Holes were bored at the bottom of the vase to pass liquid libations (Helen, Fred, & Christin, 2005, p. 778).
Mantiklos Apollo: Mantiklos Apollo is a
The paper tells that without a pre-understanding of ancient architecture the Parthenon and Pantheon resembles a significant extent due to structure of its pillars in a resembling manner however, Chartres Cathedral is a depiction of gothic architecture which can be identified with ease in its visualization.
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