Download file to see previous pages...
The documentation of religious beginning in America is found in the Mayflower Compact of 1620 which is a common referencing material. In 1648, the “Lauues and Liberty” of Massachusetts adopted banishment as the punishment to any person who criticized the baptizing of infants. Execution was put forward as the punishment for any one who worshiped any other God rather than the Lord God. The witch, blasphemer or a child who cursed their parents were executed through capital punishment. In 1648 and 1688, a total of five women were put to death because of practicing witchcraft and 16 other practitioners of witchcraft were put to death through hanging on the Salem Common in 1692. In 1660, Mary Dyer who was a Quaker was hanged On Boston Common after it was alleged she refused to stop preaching that the baptizing of infants was wrong and people may have a direct relationship with God without clergy intervening. In year 1659 and 1661, three other Quakers were hanged on the Boston Common for heresy. The Puritans of Massachusetts and the Anglicans believed in God, Slavery and witchcraft but they did not believe in religious freedom. (Gunn, 2004, p 442)1(Gunn, 2004, p 442) In 1649, the Catholic Maryland adopted the “Act Concerning Religion” .This act protected Protestants and Catholics who professed to believe in Jesus Christ from being prosecuted by puritans 2(Feldberg, 2002, p 8). However, the law later established a death penalty among the people who did not believe in trinity and prevented any critical utterances against the evangelists, the virgins and the apostles. Many of the legislators saw the law as helping to reduce religious conflicts but the Puritans of Maryland opposed it because it was very negligent and later requested the American Puritans to suppress the law. When Cromwell came into power in England, the Puritans of Maryland and Virginia joined other groups in ousting the Catholics and the Act was revoked in 1654. As a result, four Catholics were executed, all Catholics priest were exiled and Jesuit estates vandalized. The Maryland experiment in tolerating of religious ideologies only lasted for five years. (Gunn, 2004, p 443) In the 17th and 18th centuries, anti-catholic, laws discriminating against Catholics existed through out colonies. In some instances, the Huguenots who had fled from France supported the legislation. The Pennsylvanians who for along time resisted the anti-catholic laws that prohibited Catholics to hold political office and from voting also embraced the laws. In 1774, the English parliament adopted the Act of Quebec Act which provided religious freedoms to all catholic in her colonies. The Continental Congress and the legislatures in America condemned the Act for establishing an act of tyranny even though; the Act provided partial freedom to Catholics. Thus freedom of religion became the first right to be identified in the Bill of Right. The problem was that the statement of “free exercises of religion” was omitted in the fist constitution on the Bill of Right. In 1787, the congress debates led to the adoption of the Bill of Rights but they did not assert that the freedom of religion was above other rights. Even after the Bill of Rights and the constitution was ratified, freedom of religion did not manifest itself uniformly since anti-catholism was prevailing in all protestant settlements. In the 18 century, the prominent personalities in America who struggled for religious liberty like Thomas Jefferson engaged in the condemnation of anti-catholism. John jay sponsored a law which was meant to deny the Catholics political rights unless they gave up their allegiance to the pope. (Gunn, 2004, p 444) In 1786,
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
This research is being carried out to understand the objectives of and the challenges facing various federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the roles of the federal, state, and local court systems with respect to safety and civil rights, to recommend solutions to the various challenges facing criminal justice organizations and security organizations.
The Bill of Rights constitutes one of the most important United States of America’s founding papers. It is made up of the Ten Amendments to the Constitution of the US. These amendments were put in with the intention of safeguarding the basic God-given rights of the people from government interference.
These people apprehended that the government would abuse the powers given to it by the Constitution and violate civil rights of the citizens. To provide immunity to individual citizens, twelve legislative articles were introduced in the First United States Congress in 1789, and after their ratification in 1791 came to be known as Constitutional Amendments.
They demanded an amendment in the constitution for the protection of people’s freedom (Krull, 1999). Bill of Rights was thus added to the constitution on December 15, 1791. Bill of Rights guarantees few rights and freedom. It is because these amendments stand for people’s rights, they are named as ‘Bills of Rights’.
Amendment two A precisely regulated armed force, being essential to the safety of a free state, peoples’ rights to keep and own arms, will not be disobeyed. Amendment three No combatant shall, in peace times be quartered in any home, without the owner’s consent, nor in war time, but in a way laid down by the law.
The Bill of Rights and subsequent amendment notable amendments to U.S democracy are significant since it prohibits all laws that may be biased towards the establishment of a national religion and prohibits all acts that may deprive the citizens their life and property in an illegal manner.
The US Bill of Rights has inspired many countries to introduce their own constitutional rights guarantees, which however often diverge in important respect from US model in terms of the initial intentions of protection of human rights. Some leaders' contempt and disregard and for human rights have resulted in ugly situations that have outraged the conscience of mankind, all over the globe, and the advent of a world in which every human being would enjoy freedom of belief, freedom of speech.
This methodical accomplishment of such rules and procedures would then ensure that each person's rights are left intact, as well as making it certain that the consequences of those efforts are cordial to the improvement of the whole State. Thus, Amendments in the U.S.
The ability of English judges to protect human rights in the United Kingdom and to reconcile conflicting rights, in the manner indicated, is inhibited by the failure of successive governments over many years to incorporate into United Kingdom law, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).3 Moreover, the United Kingdom Human Rights Act of 1998 has attracted major attention within the Western Europe, yet it is a drop in the bucket in global terms.4 The UK Human Rights Act 1998 does not represent a fully-fledged British Bill of rights but rather seeks to incorporate the guarantees of the ECHR into English law.5 Currently, UK is the only country in Europe or the democratic commonwealth wit
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Bill of Rights - Freedom of religion for FREE!