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13th and 14th century european Scholasticism - Research Paper Example

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Universities were established in Europe for the first time during 11th century and in next four centuries fifty more universities were established. The first university established was University of Bologna and it was founded by law students…
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Download file to see previous pages There were twenty three universities in Europe during 1300 and by 14th century end twenty two more universities were founded. Training was provided in arts, law, medicine and theology. Legal study was done by a large minority of students (Hilde DeRidder-Symoens, 596) Training was given in canon and civil law to large number of students. Privileges Students were all from other countries and it was the time when Justinian Code of Roman Civil Law was rediscovered. University of Bologna became the most preeminent site for obtaining legal scholarship and the students of this university formed a cooperation called ‘universitas’ the corporation of scholars. The corporation aimed to protect the rights of these students and to obtain recognition officially. Teachers in Paris incorporated themselves and established an organizational model for the university. As large number of people was trained with common text in same subject network formation was also encouraged by these students. Training in law led to formation and development of civil, administrative and merchant laws along with staffing of court. This also led to enforcement of contracts for solving fundamental issues (McAdams, Richard H 509). Subjects Undergraduate programs were provided in seven liberal arts. Training of argumentation and reasoning came under trivium of logic, rhetoric and grammar which helped to know how the truth can be known and how it can be conveyed to others. Music, arithmetic, astronomy and geometry quadrivium explained the natural laws of universe. Neither Roman nor Greek classical literature was part of curriculum. Students were to listen to prescribed works of writers which were read to them by instructors who had masters’ degree in the Faculty of arts. After reading the text it was explained to students by these instructors along with their comments. Difficult issues were solved as debates conducted in University in which both students and faculty participated. Most of the students were less than twelve years of age and only a few of them completed six years study for getting enrolled as graduates (Acemoglu, Daron and Simon Johnson 949). Mode of study and life Students of arts during medieval period were like school boys and not like university students of today. He was supposed to listen and remember the lectures given by their masters’ and never compiled research papers or wrote essays that were expository. The students were not using library and most universities didn’t even allowed the students to use libraries. Medicine was not a separate branch of study till middle of 13th century. Later it developed in to a separate branch and the students were to follow verbal commentaries, definition, argument, deference to text of authority etc. There was no observation or clinical experience (James Robinson 579). Those students who were really ambitious wished to obtain higher degrees and for the same remained in universities itself. Usually it was students who were studying for master degree in theology who were used to give lecture to graduate students of arts. It was usual for faculties of medicine, canon law and civil law to prepare graduate students in arts for obtaining professional career. In all these students were to listen to readings of masters from texts prescribed and comments there on (Garc??a y Garc??a, Antonio 105). Books were also needed for preparing for disputes. Disputes were public performances were the lecturer used to give a question and present critical answers to it including both negative and positive aspects. These positive and negative aspects were supported by quotes from Bible and Church Fathers. Books were also very costly before printing became popular ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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