Nobody downloaded yet

Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Polybrominated biphenyl crisis in Michigan The PBB (Polybrominated biphenyl) crisis in Michigan is considered one of the worst chemical contaminations of the US. Its impact has been considered extensive and prolonged and to date, its effects are still being felt and its issues unresolved…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
Michigans Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s"

Download file to see previous pages The Michigan Chemical Corporation in St. Louis, Michigan was the main producer of the FireMaster brand of these PBB flame retardants. The brand FireMaster BP-6 was made out of a mixture of various PBB congeners with 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexabromobiphenyl and 2,2’3,4,4’,5,5’-heptabromobiphenyl as major components based on mass2. Other components of FireMaster products include bromochlorobiphenyls and polybrominated naphthalenes3. These components combined created the unfortunate animal and human health consequences seen in the Michigan chemical disaster. The FireMaster BP-6, in 1973, was accidentally added to livestock feed which was then distributed to various farms in Michigan4. Shortly thereafter, various livestock started dying. About 1.5 million chickens, 30,000 cattle, 5900 pigs, and about 1400 sheep died immediately after being contaminated and their carcasses were managed in landfills in different parts of the state5. About a year would pass before the animals would be culled6. This incident was caused by poor labeling procedures of the company with thousands of pounds of FireMaster being mistakenly labeled as magnesium oxide and delivered to companies manufacturing animal feed. After contamination, most of the animals exhibited mild symptoms like disorientation; others however became very much sick, manifesting internal bleeding and skin lesions. Others died immediately after contamination7. ...
hey did not know the actual cause of these deaths and most of them did not perceive that the tainted meat from these livestock would imply a major health threat9. As a result, meat from some of the sick animals was added into the animal feed. This caused further contamination of other animals. Meat from the healthy cows was also sold in the markets for human consumption10. Moreover, chickens which were fed the contaminated feeds lay eggs which were also tainted with PBBs. All in all, thousands of people in Michigan were actually ingesting PBB-contaminated foods and did not even know about it11. Symptoms of PBB poisoning among humans is often based on the amount or level of contamination; mostly it includes stomach problems, abnormal bleeding, loss of balance, skin lesions, and a decreased resistance to diseases12. Many farmers and their families developed health issues attributed to PBB contamination and in general, the long-term impact of PBB among Michigan residents is still persistent because of the long-term impact of the PBBs13. In fact, it would take more years to pass before the full impact of the contamination would ever be known. The disaster also gained much attention for their continued impact on livestock, with nearly all of the large dairy farms in Michigan reporting cattle and other animal deaths14. Many of their cows also started aborting and most of them soon started to look sick, with their coats becoming mangy and hooves overgrowing. Consultants from the Michigan Department of Agriculture launched their investigation of these incidents; however, they too could not establish the cause of these incidents15. Eventually however, investigators uncovered that chemical workers at the Michigan Chemical Corporation mistakenly mixed chemical polybrominated ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s Essay”, n.d.)
Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s Essay. Retrieved from
(Michigan'S Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s Essay)
Michigan'S Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s Essay.
“Michigan'S Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
huelsjannie added comment 6 months ago
Student rated this paper as
The topic of "Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s" was impossible to find. I spent countless hours to find it. Here at StudentShare, I got the most decent example. Many thanks!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s

Speaker responce

... Submitted Introduction This paper discusses my response to the seminar conducted by Joe Ellis of the Denver Broncos. He enumerates the five things to do in a workplace and the philosophies that guide them. An exposition of the insights I gathered from the presentation is shown in the first part. The next part addresses various issues that often arise in the workplace which are worth mentioning. Finally, I’ll be sharing my own experience with the topic in the last section. 2. Insights from the presentation After hearing Joe Ellis speak about the five things to do in a job, I have come to a conclusion that, in order to be successful, one must always keep things simple on the job. In accomplishing tasks and getting along... Submitted...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment


.... The Asian people enjoyed music and dance to a great extent. However, these at times differed from one part to another. The Asian culture was rich in literature as depicted by the dance and festivities. Another unique feature about my community is our stumble on philosophy that was later integrated into our way of life. Work Cited Ezinearticles (2011). Asian People, Culture and Traditions. July 20, 2008. Web. October 24, 2011. <,-Culture-and-Traditions&id=1077407> University of Michigan, School of Dentistry: Dental Hygiene Program The University of Michigan is one of the world’s highly ranked universities. The institution’s purpose is to provide its students with an...
3 Pages(750 words)Admission/Application Essay

Responce lettr

... and sibling-sibling relationships. References Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. B., & Proctor, R. F. (2013).Interplay: The process of interpersonal communication.New Yor: Oxford University Press. Rotenberg, K. J. (2006). Disclosure processes in children and adolescents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Verderber, R. F., Verderber, K. S., &Sellnow, D. D. (2012).COMM. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.... Response letter Introduction A family unit is the oldest whose existence spreads across the world. Various scholars have attempted to give explanations or definitions for this societal structure but the meanings that they give are many relevant ways. In the past, the family unit was a nuclear entity in which there was after the mother and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Journal Responce

...Journal Response In the "Letter", Martin Luther King addresses an important question concerning civil rights movement, racial inequalities in Americaand their impact on the society. Addressing Alabama clergymen, King claims that without civil disobedience movement, civil rights could never be achieved. King argues that the court cannot solve all the problems faced by African-Americans as a keeper of "unjust laws" and segregation. He supposes that civil disobedience is a necessary step, because " is a historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily" (p.3). King supports the argument stating that civil disobedience is one of the main tools used by historical figures and nations to protect... Response In...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Reading responce

...On Mother Tongue Mother Tongue, written by Amy Tan, a daughter of Chinese immigrants to California, is an essay about a who uses another kindof speak in her works compared to the manner her mother communicates, and how she perceives it in contrast to other people’s judgment. In the sixth paragraph, Tan gives the readers an overview of how her mother speaks English, so they will “have some idea of what family talk [she] heard sounds like” (77). This excerpt gives the impression that her mother’s English is “broken” or “fractured,” or “limited,” which does not make the two previous adjectives better, for the implication that there is a “limited English speaker” (Tan 77). Tan further proves that her mother’s English is “imperfect... Mother...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Free responce

...Response “There is no odor so bad as that which arises from goodness tainted”. This is a famous quote from Walden by Henry David Thoreau. The quote can have several interpretations that can be applied to fit different situations. This discussion will therefore explore the different meanings of Thoreau’s statement. This quote can have two basic interpretations and hence two corresponding implications. The first interpretation is based on a person’s goodness or lack of the virtual. The second interpretation that has equivalent validity is concerned with the rise of malicious intentions or the transition from moral behavior to immoral behavior. Goodness or lack of goodness in a person determines people’s view towards immorality... “There is no...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Analysis responce

...Schizophrenia is characterized by a severe disconnect with reality (Butcher, 2002). Most of the time, it is interchanged with psychosis and narcissistic personality disorder (Ronningstam). People with schizophrenia show two or more symptoms on a frequent basis such as hallucination, delusions, inability to hold on to an organized speech pattern or life pattern (Butcher, 2002). Although Jerome shows signs of hallucination, such as his belief that he is a model and a rapper, he does not show a disorganized speech or life pattern. In fact, he is consistent in his hallucinations. This actually became a problem as it triggers his violent reactions whenever someone questions his status. This indicates that he falls under the Axis II... is...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Speaker responce

... Speaker’s response In the insightful presentation, there were some of the words that were particularly missed during the presentation process. The confusion of these words ‘brand’ and ‘strategy’ was mostly witnessed in the presentation. These two words were misused in the context of marketing. Hence in the presentation, right words need to be used in the correct manner and in a particular context where they fit properly (Johanna 20). The consumer culture is actually influenced by the choice of words used during a presentation on the advertisement or promotion of a particular product. Some choice of words does not make particular insight particularly for the goods. Example the insight can be about milk and related foods... Speaker’s response...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...Motivating Introverts Psychology Response Gifting is a very effective motivation tool. However, the approach taken to gift or motivate an introvert is quite different. An introvert is a person who is mainly concerned with his or her inner thought and feelings rather than the environment. Therefore, to motivate or gift an introvert, it is very important that it is done privately and kept as quiet as possible. Introverts value their privacy and really appreciate things to be done low key, this is due to their shy nature (Ewen, R. 1998).  It is important to know how to approach introverts. They tend to be reserved and quiet people, therefore it is very important to observe silence. Speaking in low volume and limited energy, helps... Introverts...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Discussion Responce

...Responses In reply to response I agree with with on the current issue of discussion, our current generation is often wishing and complaining for change but it is too detached with the actual law makers. What we should understand is that no matter how much we complain, change will only come if we decided to take that extra step and seek for political power. My classmate has clearly addressed the issue in white and black, calling a spade a spade therefore, this is a major reality check and if nothing is done soon. Our generation will be remembered for those who complained but never stood up to say enough is enough or “stop let me show you how it’s supposed to be done” in favor or everyone. Reply to response 2 Just as you have... In reply to...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Michigan's Responce to the PBB Crisis in the 1970s for FREE!

Contact Us