1. Is a state-centric analysis of International Relations still relevant to contemporary world politics? International Relation (IR) has a concept evolved and function because of the states, and so state-centric analysis of International relations continues to be relevant to the contemporary world politics…
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IR focuses on the relations between the various states of the world and how their interaction and relationship are handled by the countries themselves and international organizations from the diplomatic and military perspective. Thus, when a state carries out its international relations with other states, in line with the IR theory of Realism it will mainly focus on its own interests and benefits, and very minimally from the perspective of other countries and even international perspective, and carry out actions accordingly. When the focus is on Realism, Thucydides, Machiavelli and Hobbes are regarded as the founding fathers of this Realism theory, however the Twentieth-century Realism and the scientifically enriched and associated Neorealism is focused, it had its beginnings mainly during the Cold War. That is, Realism as a theory came into prominence particularly during the Cold War years, because both United States and Soviet Union carried out aggressive and at the same time defensive activities in various fields from Military, space, foreign relations, etc, etc, mainly to protect their self-interests. Although, there was focus on international interests, which prevented nuclear catastrophe, even that decision of not to use nuclear weapons were based on self-interests. Both the countries threatened to use nuclear arsenal particularly during the Cuban crisis, they stepped down their aggressive postures, when their self-interests are catered or fulfilled. In the current times, there is no such an intense rivalry between countries, but still states act in a self-centric manner. The states will mainly prioritizes their national interests as well as territorial security, even over other forms of national functioning including their history, ideology, moral considerations, etc., as well as international concerns like world peace. With this motive, the states will act both in an offensive as well as in a defensive manner against other territories or nations to uphold these aspects. That is, they could go into a ‘game’ of one-upmanship with their opponent states, indulge in exchange of harsh words, carry out war games, initiate small-scale intrusion or even wars, etc. The states will always do this mainly with a self-centric perspective, and thereby dominate other states or territories. States in the international system maximally remain in the constant state of antagonism with few countries or maximum countries. Even politically and militarily ‘insignificant’ states will have some form of antagonism or rivalry with some countries in their neighbourhood. These countries will have general distrust and that will focus them to orient their international relations with those countries in a self-centric manner. This is happening even in the environment of strong overseeing International Organizations (IOs). Although, IOs are developed and supported by states to foster cooperation, goodwill and peace among the nations, each state had or still having various personal motivations or self-interests to support IOs and importantly act through them. IOs started evolving after the formation of sovereign state system, and as states only form and operate IOs, states have major stakes in them. States act through IOs in the matters of international relations, and for other social and economic purposes. When they do that, they will first focus on their
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