This is a study about the political theory of John Locke and the political theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau. In addition, the study will highlight and discuss how the thinking of Locke and Rousseau fit into the period of Enlightenment…
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This is a study about the political theory of John Locke and the political theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau. In addition, the study will highlight and discuss how the thinking of Locke and Rousseau fit into the period of Enlightenment. The study will start with a discussion of the political theory of Locke, followed by a discussion of Rousseau’s political theory, and then end with how their thinking fits into the period of enlightenment. The political theory of John Locke John Locke can be regarded as one of the founding fathers of liberal philosophy, which lays emphasis on limited government and individual rights. In his arguments about the state of nature, Locke noted that nature is characterized by scarcity of things to eat or wear. Therefore, human beings must work extremely hard to get food to eat and other necessities. Two things happen as a result of this hard work; first, a person survives. Secondly, a person creates property by mixing labor with the natural resources to create food, shelter, and cloth (Bode 4). Locke argued that problems might arise with property since it can be detached from the individual. In the state of nature, many people may be willing to solve the problem of scarcity by snatching a person’s property. Through this struggle, the idea of government comes into being. Locke hypothesized that men entered the society with the ultimate aim of preserving their property. People sacrifice their freedom in the state of nature and join others in a protective government...
God does not choose kings; people invent kings to protect property. On the limitations of government, people have the authority to replace leaders if they fail to perform their duties as expected (Bode 6). The political theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau Jean Rousseau can be regarded as a significant figure in the development of philosophical thought in the eighteenth century. He was one of the scholars who developed the political theory, which would later influence the age of revolutions, especially the French and American Revolutions. On the nature and society, Rousseau noted that man’s natural state could be more preferred than the civil or social state. In his Discourse on equality, Rousseau argues that man tends to appear as the solitary salvage and lives a carefree life (Qvortrup 76). In his classical work on political theory, The Social Contract (1762), Jean notes that ‘Man was born free, but is everywhere in chains’. This expressed his belief that the society has corrupted man. He argues that people recognize a general will, which is collective (Qvortrup 78). This general will should represent the common good or the interest of the public. All citizens should take part and show commitment to the general good. This should happen even if it means that people should act against their personal or private interests. For example, people may support a political party that proposes to impose heavy taxes if they have high income. This would not hurt as the taxation will bring considerable benefits to all persons. To Rousseau, therefore, a loyal citizen should not put their private interests first. He argued that when people do not put their personal interests first, equality and
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It would be an interesting debate if ever, because these two great political philosophers posits a conflicting thesis about body politic. John Locke posits that body and its accompanying laws benefit the people and their property while Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that the endorsement of a body politic is a trickery of the prevailing class that makes the inequality in society more permanent with the enforcement of its laws.
He claimed that every individual existing in this universe, has the right to be here and none had the right to harm one another. Hence, Locke is known as the “Father of liberalism” The contemporary concepts like “identity” and “self” was formulated with reference to Locke’s “theory of mind”.
Although it is oftentimes understood and believed by American historians that this particular movement of independence was somehow native and special to the American experience, the fact of the matter was that many of the influences that contributed to thought within the colonies were heavily influenced by the writings, teachings, and philosophy of a broad range of historians, Greek thinkers, and or European sociologist/political scientists.
Moreover, in the book it is clear men never perceive things as they are, but as they desire them to be; hence, this ruins men. In politics, Machiavelli shows that there are no ideal, safe courses hence prudence chooses the least dangerous one like the alliance that links the people to the ruler, which helps a leader stay in power.
mile, ou l'education, along with The Educational Theory presented by him were two of the most significant accomplishments by the fellow in the field of education.
Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts (Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts), an essay written by Rousseau in 1750 became his source to fame as it became a prize winning essay.
Such an attitude is understandable in an 'outsider', but what is more questionable, is the insistence that this misleading and disconcerting urbanity is largely the product of letters, art and science (Gourevitch, 2001). Refusing to consider the opposite point of view, Rousseau now puts this idea forward as his major thesis.
His legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous line, from his most important work, The Social Contract: "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."
Jean Jacques Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality, written for the Academy of Dijon in 1754, is an attempt to answer the question "What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law" Rousseau discusses two types of inequality, natural or physical and moral or political.