It is estimated that one in every eight women is likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at any point in life. It is estimated that each year 220,000 women in the US are diagnosed with breast cancer, of which over…
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The risk of breast cancer increases with her age. A family history also enhances risk of breast cancer. It is pertinent to notice that in 1970s, the risk of breast cancer was less than 10 percent that increased to almost 12 percent in 2005 increasing further to 12.4 percent in 2007. As per the current findings, risk of breast cancer at age 30 is 1 in 227 that increases to 1 in 42 at age 50 and further increases to 1 in 26 at age 70. Thus, age is the largest risk factor of breast cancer. Genetic changes in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also responsible for occurring breast cancer (National Cancer Institute, 2014).
Breast cancer does not have any noticeable symptoms in its initial stage. Lumps or swelling may be noticed in some cases though such symptoms are also found in non-cancerous condition. Routine monthly breast self-exam is suggested by health experts to detect any abnormality in the breasts. Annual mammogram is recommended for a woman having crossed age 40. Early diagnosis always helps to treat the patient completely.
Patient evaluation is done following the diagnosis of breast cancer. Selection of therapy will depend upon the stage of disease, the age and menopausal status, the PR and ER status report of the tumor, proliferative capacity of the tumor. Breast cancer is treated by combination of one or several therapies such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy (National Cancer Institute, 2014).
Being physically active, maintaining a proper weight and limiting alcohol intake reduces risk of breast cancer. Regular screening is essential to prevent breast cancer reaching to an advanced stage (American Cancer Society (2013).
If statistics is to be believed, breast cancer is certainly on rise in last few decades. So far, medical science is unable to understand the real causes behind breast cancer. It is fully curable when detected early and for that annual screening after age 40 is
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(“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1”, n.d.)
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(Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1)
“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1639328-breast-cancer.
Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
Thus, there is a need to create awareness amid people to deal with this health related menace. Identification of the Problem Breast cancer is a kind of cancer which emerges from breast tissue. The breast tissue found in the inner lining related to milk ducts or the lobus which provides the ducts with the obtained milk is determined as the key source of breast cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some